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Pakistan Study

 

1.            3rd June 1947 Partition Plan.

2.            Quaid’s broadcast message 3rd June, 1947.

3.            Quaid’s vision.

4.            Quaid’s vision on education in Pakistan.

5.            Quaid’s failing Health- A chronology of Events.

6.            Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was a staunch leaguer and a Pakistani.

7.            Two Nation theory Ref: Kuldipnayar

8.            Two nation theory- concept and Balochistan.

9.            Participation in Pakistan Movement at Harripur Hazara of Prof. M. A. Soofi.

10.         How I know Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah.

11.         Federation (democracy) not confideral system.

12.         Province of Punjab, we live in its position in history (in defence of Punjab).

13.         Statement – Kashmir is the part of Pakistan.

14.         Kalabagh Dam is not threat to Federation.

15.         Why Pakhtoon Khawa?

16.         Change the fate of NWFP instead of Name.

17.         Renaming NWFP.

18.         Khyber Pakhtoon Khaw Province.

19.         Madri Millat Fatima Jinnah University of Health Sciences, Medical development programme.

20.         Pakistan ideology education in children schools.

21.         Education in Pakistan.

3RD JUNE 1947 – PARTITION PLAN

3rd June 1947, Partition Plan is very important day in the history of Pakistan when British Government agreed to demand of All India Muslim League that India will be divided into the Independent Dominion. Both dominions will follow Constitution of 1935 till they frame their own Constitution.

Lord Mountbatten, new Viceroy of India arrived from Burma on 28th May 1947 to replace Lord. Wavel and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee disclosed in the British Parliament that the British Empire has decided to handover India to political parties of the said country.

Lord Mountbatten held a momentous conference of Indian leaders in order to decide the future constitutional structure of India at Viceroy House New Delhi at 10.00 AM on 1st June, 1947. President of All India Muslim League Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first to arrive, followed in quick succession by Pandit Jawahrlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and the Congress President, Acharya Kripalani, who came together in one car; and Sardar Baldev Singh, the Sikh representative, two Muslim League Leaders Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar and Mr. Khan Liaquat Ali Khan were also present in the meeting.   The leaders were received at the entrance of Viceroy House by Col Carrie, Military Secretary to the Viceroy and ADCs to the Viceroy. The conference was very short and had adjourned on 12.05 PM. Mahatma Gandhi has not attended this meeting as he was observing routine fast at Bhagi Colony. The Nawab of Bhopal, Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes, called on Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah President of All India Muslim League soon after the meeting. Next day, the Viceroy met the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes and the 14 representatives of the Indian States who formed the States Negotiating Committee in order to decide fate of States. .

In this very important meeting the leaders of All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress Party were very active and Viceroy again resumed meeting on 2nd June at 10.00 AM at Viceroy House. The leaders agreed for the partition of India whereas Muhammad Ali Jinnah President of All India Muslim League while agreeing he conveyed that acceptance of scheme will be subject to approval of All India Muslim League Council. Mr. M. A. Jinnah who met the Lord Mountbatten assured the acceptance of plan but he again conveyed his political generosity that the Muslim League Council is to accept or to reject but he assured him that he shall pursue that Muslim League to accept this plan. In this plan All India Muslim League was not in favour of partition of Punjab and Bengal because it was against the will and intension of Muslim League, however, it was decided and Viceroy and Indian leaders will broadcast by All India Radio on 3rd June 1947 and finally they declared acceptance of this plan.

On 3rd June 1947, British Government’s new plan which was broadcasted by the All India Radio has finally conceded the Muslim demand for Pakistan, but provides information, partition of Bengal, the Punjab and Assam. A specific procedure is laid down how and by whom the future of the Muslim majority and non Muslim majority areas is to be decided.   Transfer of power to Indian hands – to two separate governments, each enjoying Dominion Status. Boundary Commissions is to finally delimit the frontiers of the two States having regard to the contiguity of Muslim and non Muslim populations and other factors. There is to be referendums in the NWFP and Sylhet and the Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten is to announce some method of ascertaining the wishes of the people of Balochistan.

The Quaid advised the Frontier Muslim League leaders through All India Radio to withdraw disobedience movement to provide peaceful atmosphere so that Referendum should be held in July. After concluding the speech Pandat Nehro declared Jay Hind from All India Radio thus the Muslim Leaders of the Sub Continent for the first time declared Pakistan Zindabad at the end of Speech. In this way, he design Pakistan in best way and dignity. Facts were explained and sensitivity of Muslim regarding Pakistan was declared.


 

QUAID’S BROADCAST MESSAGE, 3RD JUNE, 1947

Quaid said, it is the first time, I believe that a non –official has been afforded an opportunity to address the people directly through the medium of this powerful instrument. 

His Majesty’s Government embodying the plan for the transfer of power to the peoples of India has already been broadcast and will be released to the press to be published in India, the outlines of the plan for us to give it our most earnest consideration. We have to examine it coolly, calmly and dispassionately. We must remember that we have to take momentous decisions and handle grave issues facing us in the solution of the complex political problem of this great sub continent inhabited by 400 million people. The world has no parallel for the most onerous and difficult tasks. Therefore, we must galvanize and concentrate all our energies to see that the transfer of power is effected in peaceful and orderly manner. I most earnestly appeal to every community and particularly to Muslim India to maintain peace and order.   We must examine the plan, its letter and spirit and come to our conclusions and take our decisions. I pray to God that at this critical moment, He may guide us and enable us to discharge our responsibilities in a wise and statesman like manner having regard to the sum total of the plan as a whole. Plan does not meet in some important respects our point of view, and we cannot say or feel that we are satisfied. It is for us now to consider whether the plan as presented to us by His Majesty’s Government should be accepted by us as a compromise or a settlement.

On this point I do not wish to prejudge the decision of the Council of the All India Muslim League which has been summoned to meet on Monday 9th June, and the final decision can only be taken by that Council according to our constitution, precedents and practice. I have been able together on the whole the reaction in the Muslim League circles in Delhi has been hopeful. 

I cannot but express my appreciation of the sufferings and sacrifices made by all classes of Muslims and particularly the great part the women of the Frontier played in the fight for our civil liberties. Without apportioning blame, and this is hardly the moment to do so, I deeply sympathize with all those who have suffered, and those who died or whose properties were subjected to destruction, and I fervently hope that the Frontier will go through this referendum in a peaceful manner and it should be the anxiety of everyone to obtain a fair, free and true verdict of the people of the Frontier. Once again, I most earnestly appeal to all to maintain peace and order, Pakistan Zindabad.

 


 

QUAID’S VISION

 
 

It was great vision of Muhammad Ali Jinnah based upon his defined objective of homeland for muslims of sub-continent and his constitutional aspiration brought into practice. The transmission of ideas based upon his innovative and original thinking for a nation, and with distinguished management and struggle he obtained the destination of changing the Muslim minority of sub-continent into a nation which is now exhibiting its own qualities in the field of cricket, hockey, squash, weight lifting etc. as a hero of the Independent State. The scholar like Abdus-Salam with knowledge, research has obtained the distinction of the world being selected for noble prize for his discovery in scientific filed. There are many research scholars of high calibre in the various parts of the Globe, which they have proved technologically are superior in performance. Similar situation is in legal profession and judiciary where a Pakistani has held a post of Justice of international court of justice. This was the unified vision in a leader for creating a nation, a country in which opportunities for individual will be provided to share the responsibilities for building up this nation. The separate electorate has provided the muslim population a solution to their problems.

 


 
QUAID’S VISION ON EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
 
By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi
 

Pakistan emerged as an independent Muslim state on the surface of globe after struggle of Muslims of Sub-continent under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and All India Muslim League. Thus as a result of partition of India into Pakistan and India on 14th of August, 1947 we got East Pakistan in the north east of India and West Pakistan in the north west of India having four provinces and federally administered areas. 

 

Areas included in Pakistan were already backward in education as compared to the areas comprising of Bharat. In the north east of India prior to partition, Dhaka University was established in 1913. All other Muslims population areas were lacking in universities, schools, teachers. Similarly, in the north west of India comprising of four provinces, there was a dearth of educational institutions. Similarly, i.e. in 1860 University of Lahore was created which was renamed as University of the Punjab in 1883.   This was the only educational institution providing the educational facilities to the men and women of these large areas and there was no other University in this area. The degree colleges were few, female education was minimum and thus after creation of Pakistan on the advice of Quaid-e-Muhammad Ali Jinnah Governor General Pakistan, an Educational conference was organized at Karachi in Nov. 1947 in order to get away from our inherited foreign educational system designed to fulfil the colonial interests of its imperialists rulers.   The culture of education was based on the western style which was not appropriate for our society. 

 

Pakistan was based on ideological commitments of two nation theory, that Islam is source of strength in almost all fields of life, and to enable the citizen to pass their lives in accordance with injunctions of Al Quran and tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).   The leaders in the beginning wanted to change the education system after removing the draw backs so that the education system should be oriented according to our cultural, ideological, economical and political needs of the new nation. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah founder of the country and the first Governor General could not attend this conference physically due to his ill health but he had issued a message for the conference which in unequivocal terms highlighted priorities in the field of education, he expressed earnestness of the government in attending to them. Quaid’s message is as follows:

“In his message to All Pakistan Education Conference, at Karachi on 27th Nov. 1947 he said: You know that the importance of education and the right type of education can not be over emphasized. Under foreign rule for over a century, in the very nature of things,  I regret sufficient attention has not been paid to the education of our people, and if we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this question and bring out an educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have taken place all over the world. It is clear from the speeches and thoughts of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah mentioned above, that he was not satisfied with the education system of British India. He wanted to create a new structure of education in Pakistan responsive to the religious, socio-culture and economic needs of Pakistan. Secondly, he did not restrict education to any particular area of study but he encouraged Muslims to advance in all fields of study besides Arts and Law like Commerce, Science and Technology, etc, keeping in view the developments that were taking place all over the world. If education system in Pakistan is designed on the lines set by Quaid-i-Azam Pakistani nation and the State of Pakistan will soon advance in every field of life, Insha Allah. Prior to creation of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, President All India Muslim League was very much concerned about the education of the Muslims of sub-continent and he expressed his heart and mind to the Principal Islamia College, Calcutta on 23rd Feb. 1946 “ Education will be one of the first problems that the Pakistan Government will be called upon to deal with. When it is established to be followed by economic and social reform”. It means Quaid desired to have an education and the education system for the Muslims which would be in accordance with their own religion and culture. Similar expression he gave to the students of Islamia College Peshawar during the 2nd visit in Nov. 1945 Mr. M. A. Jinnah said: “Islamic dimension of the planning process in various educational economic and planning subject committee are being set up by All India Muslim League to find out material for reconstruction of the Muslim education, Muslim Industry, and Muslim commerce on proper, sound and essential Islamic basics. (Ref: Quaid-e-Azam Vision of Education, by Shehla Kazmi, DAWN, Thursday Dec 25, 2003).

 

The conference was held in full length and there was long discussion. After discussion by the scholars representing the various provinces, three recommendations were formulated for the education system of Pakistan:

 

a.            Free and compulsory education

b.            Education should be inspired by Islamic principles particularly by the ideals of universal brotherhood, tolerance and justice.

c.            Adequate recognition should be given to the technical education.

 

The education was made free and compulsory and islamic principles were the main ideas because Islam promotes the idea of universal brotherhood, tolerance and justice for all. In those days, education system consisted of 3 stages: primary education comprising of 5 years schooling for the age group of 5 to 9 years to provide the basic facility of education to all the children of Pakistan; secondary education, middle schools 10-12 years matriculation 13 to 14 years; and the higher education was the 3rd stage in the colleges and there was also technical education etc.   (Ref. Pakistan Education published by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Pakistan).

 

To follow up the recommendations of education conference of 1947 another conference was held in 1951 during the period of Khawja Nazim ud Din, in order to discuss the decision of previous conference and add new ideas.   Another education reform commission was set up in 1959 during the period of Ayub Khan from 1958-68) to conduct an over all analysis of the situation and formulation of the recommendation. As a result, a high powered commission under the chairmanship of Mr. S. M. Sharif prepared a report in detail. According to his advice, the advisory board of education, the council on technical education and inter university board were set up to help and achieve the objectives.   The work on the education was going on very slowly due to socio political situation of the country and as a policy matter the budget allotment to education and health was minimum.   Much of the budget was spent on the defense system. Another report came up in 1977 which suggested certain changes and thus based on the recommendations of this report, education policy was prepared by Government of Pakistan from 1972 to 1980. When the civil government ended, the successive government held another conference from 3-5 Oct. 1977 at Islamabad in order to lay down a system of education based on aspirations of the people suited for their needs. Thus the education policy was announced in Oct. 1978 the salient features of the policy were as under: -

 

1.            To foster in the hearts and minds of the people of Pakistan, in general, and the students in particular, a deep and abiding loyalty to Islam and living consciousness of Muslim nationhood, thereby strengthening the unity of the outlook of the people living In various provinces and the minorities on the basis of justice and fairplay;

2.            To create an awareness in every student that he, as a member of Pakistani nation, is also a part of the universal Muslim Ummah and it is expected of him to make a contribution towards the welfare of fellow Muslims inhabiting the globe;

3.            To develop and inculcate in accordance with Quran and Sunnah, the character, conduct and motivation expected of a true Muslim through effective elimination of gaps and contradictions   between the profession and practice of Islam. 

4.            To develop fully according to his capacity, each individual’s potentialities through training and retraining and to liberate the creative and innovative energies of the people with a view to build their capabilities to effectively manage social, natural and productive forces, consistent with the value system of Islam.

5.            To provide a minimum acceptable level of functional literacy and fundamental education to all citizens of the country particularly the young, irrespective of their faith, caste and creed in order to enable them to participate productively in the total national effort;

6.            To create interest and love for learning and discipline among the youth and to ensure that every student is imbibed with the realization that education is a continuous and a lifelong process; and

7.            To promote and propagate scientific and technological training and research in the country and to use this knowledge for socio economic growth and development thereby ensuring a self reliant and secure future for the nation.

 

Then there was a fifth plan from 1978 to 1981 and many schools and universities appeared during these days like :

1.            University of the Punjab, Lahore.

2.            University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore.

3.            Bahauddin Zakaria University, Multan.

4.            Islamia University, Bahawalpur.

5.            University of Sind, Jamshoro.

6.            Mehran University of Engineering & Technology.

7.            Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sind.

8.            Agriculture University, Faisalabad.

9.            University of Karachi, Karachi.

10.         N.E.D. Engineering University, Karachi.

11.         University of Baluchistan, Quetta.

12.         University of Peshawar, Peshawar.

13.         NWFP University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar.

14.         NWFP University of Agriculture, Peshawar.

15.         Gomal University, D. I. Khan.

16.         Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

17.         Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

18.         Islamic University, Islamabad.

19.         University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad.

20.         Women University, at Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar.

21.         Aga Khan University of Health Sciences.

 

With all such efforts Mehboob ul Haq Report 1997 defines that from 1970 to 1993 the adult literacy increased from 21 % to 36 % and from 1980 to 1993 during this period the number of primary, secondary and inter admissions became doubled. Even then 2/3 of adult population of Pakistan was without education. He said 17 million children upto 1995 could not be admitted.   He mentioned that 36 million people of Pakistan are passing life under poverty line and much of the land is in possession of Zamindars.   He also mentioned that the children going to the primary school, half and more than half leave the school and join work as laborers. He mentioned that due to poverty and lack of proper diet and income 740000 children die each year due to adulterated diet. He further mentioned that 60 million people had no access to health facilities and 67 million people drank unclean water and 89 million hadn’t got the facilities of sanitation.   So upto last century our educational system could not be steered in the right direction because Pakistan spent less than 5% of GDP on the education system. This expenditure on the education is the poorest in the world spent on the social welfare of the citizens. He said 0.2 % of the total income is being spent on education while America spent 11 % Sweden spent 13 % of the total income on education. So when education is not a priority, its standard cannot be improved and it cannot contribute to the economy of the country. Drop outs from schools end up as beggars, mostly they get bad society and a huge number of the children are working in workshops. (Ref. Development in South Asia-1997 by Mehboob ul Haq, Oxford University Press).

 

If we consider the total population of Pakistan, 14 to 18 crores, we find that more than 7 crores of this population is 18 years or more and 2.50 crore is less than 5 years. If we calculate, we find that more than 2.25 crores children cannot get into the schools. If we visualize the education system, it comprises of three things:

1.            Students.

2.            Teachers

3.            Schools having the laboratories and libraries.

 

If we could see the students admission ratio which has been explained above, now in the province of Punjab, Government of Punjab has declared formula of 1947 conference i.e. free primary education in addition to 200 /PM scholarship for girls students upto 8th class. Second, comes the teachers, recently a report has been published that 3585 posts of the teachers are vacant in the elementary and secondary school teachers in the Province of Punjab.   The role of teachers is very important when the teachers are not provided proper status they cannot perform well.   Much of the standard of education in the country depends upon the quality and commitment of the teaching staff and teachers are suffering in Pakistan and the standard of teaching has declined over the years because quality because teachers have not been given incentive and the government has failed to allocate sufficient funds for the betterment of students and teachers. Thus most of the schools at primary level, higher level are inadequately staffed. We are lacking trained science teachers in the whole of the province. 

 

I have got personal experience during my visit to many schools of the city of Lahore in the areas of Sant Nagar, Krishan Nagar.   More over the service condition of the teachers is worse, they are low paid so this aspect is very grievous and parents have lost the trust in the teaching system and institution run by the government. Therefore, the attendance or registration of the children in the rural areas and some of the urban areas is less as compared to admission in private schools. Third problem is the lack of Schools.   In many areas of the Punjab and elsewhere, primary schools are missing. Many schools lack roofs, boundary walls, drinking water facility, library, science laboratories, therefore, it has got less attraction for the parents to send the children to the schools. If there is a school, teachers are not available. 

 

The educational reforms. The recent changes in the syllabus have created another controversial problem in the country. We are already lacking in education, and day by day more problems are being created for the children and for the parents.   I, therefore suggest to over come the difficulties in education, the budget should be increased, attention should be increased, interest should be increased we have to overcome the literacy and poverty in this region.   We have to consider education as a future resource of country, there is a need for proper balance, appropriate education in accordance with discipline of Islam and with the slogan of Quaid-e-Azam, justice; fairplay and impartiality in education. We should do the justice to the population of Pakistan, we should provide them fair funds, teachers, schools facilities irrespective of rich or poor / caste and creed. At present the education is limited to the urban population of those who have got resources to bear the cost of the education at private level. 

 

Education is the only sector which has been neglected to the maximum in Pakistan by almost all the governments during the past 56 years. With all our efforts of propagation, we could not obtain literacy rate in Pakistan on which the Muslim State was created and thus the apathy created by the bureaucrats or the heads of the government had neglected this important social sector.   We lacked the initiative in education even during Ayub Khan regime from (1958 to 1969), (Mr. Qudrat ullaha Shahab – in Shahab Nama 1996) in his chapter President Ayub and students has mentioned many interesting stories that President Ayub was scared of the College and University Education and he was not taking keen interest for promotion of the education at higher level as he feared that such students will create problems against the Government by holding strikes or processions. Qudratullah mentioned that Governor West Pakistan Nawab Kalabagh closed down the colleges for some time. Mr. Shahab talked to the Governor for opening of the Colleges because it is wastage of the time of the students.   President Ayub was also very much frightened of the religious education and though he was in favour of opening primary schools but he never agreed to open the primary school in the Mosques. President Ayub was   scared of the students union. In East Pakistan, there was a book which was confusing the ideology of Pakistan it was approved by text book board of East Pakistan, this book was against unity, national interest, solidarity, the book was in the intermediate course “ History of Pakistan in English” actually this book was written by a Hindu of Calcutta with forged name of Muslim of Dhaka which distorted the historical background and when the case was put before the Governor Abdul Munam Khan, he avoided to delete the book as this book was introduced by the agents of the Hindu through his relative and they were paid a huge  amount of money.

 

Similarly the process of the improvement of the text books in English and Urdu medium needs to be judged out for justification, accountability, efficiency, whether the book is potent, actual, based upon the facts, or it should be acceptable to the teachers that the book will not misguide the students.   We had open no the schools, we upgrade colleges, we initiate universities but we do not go for monitoring of the expenditure to the relevant utility and benefit to the public. After all money is being spent by the government exchequer there should be some popular opinion about the school, the student should be attracted, teachers should be engaged in reality, parents should be involved. Trust is created only when we can see that education is flourishing. Schooling becomes only effective, if the students requirements are met by the State otherwise education at home, education at Mohalla is being sold on the different pattern, different style which is injurious to the fulfillment of education. If we examine carefully Fobia of ‘O’ or ‘A’ level, Pakistan is loosing brilliant students because the best students are chosen by Cambridge, international examination or other foreign university, and thus the cream of students is not available at the campus of our university. Similar situation is that of the medical doctors. The brilliant doctors in early fiftees left the country for improving the quality of their degrees and now they are settled abroad to increase income and they are recognized as best medical person internationally. So if we want to save the future of Pakistan, we have to look into our school education, college education and for career making of the young men and women in this country and to create opportunity for them so that intelligent people should work for the future of the country. There is need of initiative on the part of the government, areas of education, health and other reforms.

 

The Government of the Punjab has taken initiative with the great declaration of education for everybody, there is need that text books which are being introduced possess or contain the ideology of Pakistan and the teachers receive their refresher training course of the new methods and the parents are encouraged to send their children to these schools. Then only the dream of the Quaid-e-Azam and the spirit of his struggle for independence will find its fulfillment.


QUAID’S FAILING HEALTH: A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS

 

A weak and tiny boy having slim and long hands born on 25th December in the year 1876 was destined to become the Father of the Nation. Name Mohammed Ali he came to be known as Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah. His mother’s conviction and the boy’s own determination at the early age manifested that he was destined to be a great man some day. When born the baby was weak and underweight; parents were worried about his health but the doctors said that except for his weak appearance, there was nothing physically wrong with him.

Nature had gifted him with a giant’s strength in so far as his determination to achieve the tasks that he had set for himself were concerned, but it had clothed that will in a frail body unable to keep pace with the driving force of his restless mind and will. It was bitter to be afflicted with health that could not stand the rigours of a tumultuous life in the face of over whelming odds, and to be gifted with a tenaciousness that wanted to triumph over all obstacles to lead his people to their ultimate destiny.

Ever since the league session in Lahore in 1940 passed the Pakistan Resolution, he whipped his failing health to make it keep pace with his increasing work. Incessant travelling, long and arduous hours of work and the worries that are the only reward that a political leader receives during his day of struggle, were taking a heavy toll, but he paid the price with a smile.

 

His 5’, 11-1/2” body that normally weighed around 112 pounds was losing its weight ounce by ounce. That had made him out a transparently thin man. But he showed supreme indifference to such private matters as his personal health.

 

A careful perusal of material available on Quaid-I-Azam reveals that by and large, Jinnah had enjoyed a trouble-free health all his life until he was sixty. Problems with his health begain only from the middle of 1930’s when he turned a sexagenarian. Dr. Z. H. Zaidi in his article “M.A. Jinnah. The Man” published in A. H. Dani’s World Scholars on Quaid-i-Azam (1979) has compiled an account of his illnesses from the personal correspondence, which the Quaid had with different people, it shows how much will-power he had to exert to keep his body going under these strains from the beginning of 1938 (age 62 years) till his death on 11th September 1948.  

He had to fight through prolonged bouts of illnesses.

In April 1938 he was found complaining about the tremendous strain on his nerves and physical endurance. In September of that year he was seriously ill and constant over work and strain finally brought about a breakdown. He rallied but even in December he was still not feeling well.

In 1941 he was again a sick man. In 1940 and 1941 he saw his doctors and dentists nearly five times a year. His sister was a dentist but Jinnah had a mouthful of rotting yellow teeth. In 1942 he was consulting Dr. Albert Batty of new Delhi, while in July 1943 he was attacked by a Khaksar and though in August he assured his worried Enquirer’s that he was speedily recovering, he suffered another setback in September when he strained his back.   

In May 1944 he at least took a breather in Srinagar, but he was back in Lahore in July 1944, overwhelmed with work and by August was laid up under the treatment for three weeks, of Dr. Jal Patel. No complete cure was effected and in October he was fit in a few days treatment, ‘It is very difficult for me to get away from my work’.   This he wrote to Dr. Dinshaw K. Mehta. 

Throughout the first half of 1945 he remained ill, the news of his persisting illness disturbed many a friend. In the third week of April 1945 he left for Matheran, a hill station near Bombay in search of the rest which had been ordered. By the 27th April he was reporting to Mir Laik Ali that he had started feeling better, but that was scarcely true, for ten days later he was found complaining about the effect of the illness, which had left him weak and urgently in need of a complete rest for some time to come. But the rest was something he did not get.

From his sickbed in Bombay he had worked away to wind up his pending correspondence.   While in Delhi Jinnah had been under treatment by Dr. Albert Batty. But the Hindustan Times, published a news item on 12th April 1945 to the effect that Jinnah had made steady progress and had been allowed to undertake journey to Bombay by his physician Dr. Rehman. This infuriated Batty who, feeling belittled, wrote a long accusatory letter to the Quaid and in protest Dr. Batty returned Jinnah’s cheque with the Biblical quotation that man does not live by bread along. Ill through he was Jinnah exerted himself to soothe the doctor’s ruffled feeling. Jinnah admitted that since Dr. Rehman had treated him on several occasions before, he had used the occasion of his being in Delhi to consult him and then gave him a long discourse and sent back the cheque pleading to accept it and requested him to forget the incident.

Jinnah had been under Dr. Dinshaw K. Mehta’s treatment after his return from Kashmir in 1944. The doctor ran the Nature cure clinic and a sanatorium at Poona (now Pune) with a branch in Bombay and one who had Gandhi as one of his patients (he was a follower of Gandhi also). He specialized in non-medicinal therapeutics like hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, physiotherapy though he did not exclude the use of herbal and homeopathic medicine. Jinnah and his sister both had tried ‘unani’ medicine in 1941 on the recommendations of Bahader Yar Jang. 

Dr. Dinshaw had also insisted for long-term treatment. However, he recognized that he was asking the impossible from Jinnah for whom time was the scarcest commodity. Jinnah had hardly stayed for two months in Matheran when the approach of very heavy monsoon, drove him out and brought him back to mount pleasant Road Bombay, and a climate which was hardly suitable for his declining health.

Jinnah went on to attend Simla conference (25th June to 14th July 1945) travelling from Matheran to Bombay and then to Simla all within 10 days when he had been advised to take complete rest. At Simla he was absolutely head over heels in work and had no breathing time and by the third week of July was back in Delhi, when he reported himself once again tired and far from well.

Earlier, he had been urged by his doctors to go to some temperate and dry climate and they had recommended Quetta. So Jinnah approached Khan of Kalat to ask if the Aiwan-I-Kalat Quetta could be put at his disposal for a couple of months. The pick me up process which had been recommended by Dr. Dinshaw was to be tried through rest and a change of climate. Before Jinnah took to Quetta road, he returned to Delhi towards the end of July 1945 and then spent whole of August in Bombay addressing public meetings; then he traveled to Karachi where he was caught up in local squabbling.

It was only towards the end of the second week of September that he finally reached Quetta where he could stay only for a month.   But he could not rest there as he attended several public meetings. On October 23 he was in Karachi, on 27th October in Ahmedabad and on 29th October in Bombay addressing public meetings, granting interviews. From Karachi he wrote to Dr. Jal Patel that he was following his advice, also wrote to Ispahani thanking him for his concern and allaying his apprehension (all this account is based on correspondence).  

According to Miss Fatima Jinnah, in early November 1940, they (Quaid and Miss Fatima Jinnah) were travelling in train from Bombay to Delhi to attend the session of Central Legislative Assembly when Quaid suffered severe right side chest pain. Only on reaching Delhi next morning a doctor was called who diagnosed him as suffering from pleurisy and advised him to stay in bed for a fortnight. He remained in bed for two days and was again at his work.   The attack of pleurisy was the beginning of the sickness that ultimately claimed his life. Thereafter he was always allergic to colds and the slightest attack of even a mild cold would soon deepen into agonizing days of fever and coughing.

 

A few months later in April 1941 he was travelling from Bombay to Madras. When he got up from his berth to go to toilet he collapsed; a doctor was called on the next station who diagnosed nervous breakdown and advised him a week’s rest.

During the period before independence Quaid had to address several public meetings but back home, in the sanctified solitude of his room, he lay prostrate in the bed, breathless with fatigue, gasping for breath. Fortunately, he had the capacity of sleeping at will at that time.   He was a soul that thirsted for service in a body that was worn out by work and ill health. He kept up this feverish tempo of life for a number of years in spite of the recurring bouts of fever that emaciated his body. 

His medical records available at the National Archives, Islamabad consist of X-ray plats, clinical reports and electrocar-diograms (1940-45) which confirm that during this period Quaid consulted different doctors. One report of Dr. F. W. Berger M. D. of Rafiya Manzil, 14, Wode House Road Bombay dated 10th August, 1940 is quite revealing, stating that his calcium level was normal.   However, Takata Ara test was slightly positive, indicating that his liver was slightly affected. There was leucocytosis but urine was normal.

The X-ray of the chest showed that in the right upper lobe, infra and supraclavcular region, a fair amount of mottling, calcified and perfectly healed processes, which he wrote, could not be made responsible for the occasional appearance of temperature and cough with phlegm. For this Dr. Berger wrote: I would rather consider the signs of chronic bronchitis is both lower lobes responsible on the right side already indicating a considerable and chronic enlargement of the small bronchi (beginning of bronchiectasis). This, in my opinion, is the explanation of the slightly impaired condition of the liver and not as you thought that the liver is primarily affect. Therefore, giving you the cough and phlegm. It is just the other way about (this also reveals that Quaid used to argue with his doctors and tried to divert his medical attendants’ attention from his lungs), your heart is fairly small, in accordance with your size. So far nothing pathological. E.C. G. recording by Dr. Albert Batty, dated 10th March, 1945 are normal.

Quaid’s fluoroscopy and radiological examination by Dr. S. C. Sen of 1, Bara Khamba Road, new Delhi dated 9.4.1945, (when he was referred by Dr. Rehman) states that on screening his right dome of diaphragm moved fairly well, while left dome movements were restricted and peaked with a band of adhesion. His chest X-ray report says calcified nodules seen in the region of the apex and upper zone. Scattered areas of fibrosis are seen in lower zones.

Diaphragm is high up and peaked with bands of adhesion. The opacities in this region my be due to deposition of fibrinous exudates and thickened pleura probability of Bronchiectasis cannot be ruled out without a lipoidal examination (Dr. S.c. Sen, BSc, M. B. DMRE (Cantab) & partner Dr. Ved Parkash, M. B.B.S, DMRE, (Cantab) both qualified radiologists). Another report by Dr. K. R. Mody B. A. DMR (Eng) Tata Memorial Hospital Bombay dated 18th June: 1945 chief symptoms: History of Pneumonia and pleurisy examination; screening and chest X-ray.

Screening:

Diaphragm: Both sides, move well, and freely; no adhesions, contour regular.

Pleura: No evidence of pleurisy. Recent attack has completely subsided without leaving behind any traces of disease.

Lungs: Old calcified patches, small, punctuate and discrete, in the upper third of the right lung, rest of the lung field are clear. The hilars are prominent indicating old catarrhal lesions. Heart & Aorta:   Not enlarged, nor sclerotic nor calcified.

Mediastinum: Clear.

Comments: There is complete recovery from the recent attack. No residual disease; the calcification noted above are remnants of old healed lesions. 

X-ray examination of lumber spine: pelvis and hip joints.

Complains of pain in the back. Bones are decalcified partially due to senility, osteophytes on the 2nd lumber on the right side with arthritic changes between L1 & L2; no evidence of urinary calculus. 

Collins and Lapierre in Freedom at Midnight on page 137 wrote, if Louis Mountbatten, Jawaherlal Nehru or Mahatama Gandhi had been aware in April 1947 of one extraordinary secret, the division threatening India might have been avoided.   Even the British CID, one of the most effective investigative agencies of the world, was ignorant of its existence.

Sealed in an unmarked envelope were Jinnah’s X-rays locked in the office safe of Dr. Jal Patel, a Bombay physician. These X-rays had two pulmonary cavities no bigger that a pair of ping pong balls, each was ringed by an irregular white borders; the little chain of whole dots indicated areas where pulmonary or pleural tissue was already hardening and confirmed the diagnosis.    Tuberculosis was devouring the lungs. These X-rays were developed by Dr. Jal Patel in June 1946. All his life Jinnah had suffered from delicate health due to his week pulmonary system.

Long before the war he had been treated in Berlin from complications arising out of an attack of pleurisy. Frequent Bronchitis since then had diminished his strength and weakened his respiratory system to the point at which the effort demanded by a major speech would leave him panting for hours.

In Simla, in late May 1946, bronchitis again struck Jinnah, his devoted sister got him on a train to Bombay, but en route his condition worsened. So alarming did his state become that she sent an urgent call to Dr. Patel. Patel boarded his train outside Bombay, his distinguished patient’s condition, he quickly discovered was desperately bad warning Jinnah he would collapse if he tried to get through the reception waiting for him at Bombay’s Grand Railroad Station. Patel bundled him off the train at a suburban station and into a hospital. It was while he was there, slowly regaining his strength, that Patel discovered what would become the most closely guarded secret in India. He was informed that he must cut down his workload, otherwise he did not have more than one or two years to live. Jinnah received that harsh news passively. There was no question, he told Dr. Patel, of abandoning his life’s crusade for a sanatorium bed, Mount Batten’s predecessor Lord Wavell, noted in his diary on 10th January and 28th February 1946 that Jinnah was a sick man but he was not aware of how grave the illness was. Even his daughter Wadia, in an interview in December 1973, revealed that she only became aware that her father had tuberculosis after his death. Jinnah ignored all his medical advice. He was not going to let his rendezvous with death cheat him of his other rendezvous with history.

 

When Pakistan was established on (14 -15) August 1947, he drove through cheering crowds to the Governor General’s house little did they know how sick the Quaid-i-Azam was. He was far from being physically fit. He had little or no appetite at all and the best delicacies prepared with love & care could not tempt him. His life long habit of sleeping when he willed had gone and he passed many sleepless nights, tossing restlessly on pillows. His cough increased and with it his temperature. His personal physician, Dr. Col. Rehman, examined him after great persuation, since he had an abnormal aversion for doctors’ medicines, a life long habit, diagnosed him as having malaria for which he was closely questioned by Quaid, who could not be satisfied by doctor’s explanation and refused to take medicine prescribed for it. 

Quaid visited Lahore in September 1947 and at the end of Oct. 1947 on return he was once again in bed, laid up with exhaustion and Mounting fever. 

In March, 1948, he flew thousands of miles to East Pakistan and endured a programme of reception, reviews and speeches during several days.

In April 1948 he visited Peshawar for 7 days and went round a hectic schedule; at one open air meeting it started raining and he was drenched to the bone. That night he had a running nose, cold and chill, cough and high temperature. On his return to Karachi, when a doctor was forced on him, he learnt that he was in for a mild attack of bronchitis. He kept in bet for a few days but also attended to his files.

After six weeks he was feeling abit better and on constant pleading by his sister and Dr. Rehman to give chance to his health to recoup, he finally yielded in June 1948 to move to Quetta.

Within a few days of his arrival in Quetta there was marked improvement in his health. Occasionally he accepted to attend public functions and on 15th June he attended civic reception by Quetta Municipality.

He had accepted to perform the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan on 1st July 1948. Against all medical advice he traveled to Karachi, but the air journey laid him low; he was in bad health, his voice being scarcely audible, pausing, coughing but on he proceeded with the text of the speech after five days stay at Karachi. He returned to Quetta; the next day he showed signs of weakness and fatigue, a slight fever persisted. One day he decided to move to Ziarat when his health began to give cause for alarm to his ownself. So he agreed to medical advice and attention.

Miss Fatima Jinnah asked Mr. Farrukh Ameen (Private Secretary) to telephone Choudhry Muhammad Ali, who was at that time Secretary General of the Cabinet that Dr. Col Ellahi Bux, an eminent physician of Lahore should be flown to Ziarat. This was on 21st July, 1948. 

On Friday 23rd July 1948 Dr. Col Illahi Bux reached Ziarat but Quaid in his non-chalant manner asked him to come next day at 8 am. In the words of Dr. Col Illahi Bux, he was ushered in to his presence the following morning (Sat. 24th July). After initial greetings the Quaid said:

There is nothing much wrong with me except that I have got stomach trouble and exhaustion due to overwork and worry.   For 40 ye4ars I have worked for 14 hours a day, never knowing what disease was. However, for the last few years I have been having annual attacks of fever and cough. My doctors in Bombay regarded these attacks as bronchitis and with the usual treatment and rest in bet I generally recovered within a week or so. For the last year or two, however, they increased in frequency and severity and are much more exhausting. He lost breath, his mouth was dry and he moistened his lips many times while taking. His voice lacked tone and at times was inaudible.

About three weeks ago I caught a chill and developed fever and a cough for which the Civil Surgeon Quetta (Dr. Siddiqui) prescribed penicillin lozenges. I have been taking these since, my cold is better, the fever is less, but feel very weak. I don’t think there is anything organically wrong with me. The phlegm which I bring up is probably coming from my stomach and if my stomach can be put right I will recover soon. Many years ago I had a rather bad stomach trouble for which I consulted two or three London specialists but they failed to diagnose my illness and one of them even advised operation. I didn’t submit to operation and on the advice of another London doctor went to Germany and consulted a famous doctor. He told me that I had no organic trouble and only needed rest and regulation (in) diet. I stayed in his clinic for a few weeks and recovered completely. In 1934 (aged 58 years) I was diagnosed by the Bombay doctors to be suffering from heart disease, but a heart specialist in Germany assured me that my heart was perfectly normal.  

After this history Dr. Col. Illahi Bux examined him, he was much thinner (than with clothes on) and in much advanced stage of emaciation. He was informed that his trouble was lung disease rather than stomach trouble; final diagnosis will be given after further investigation. He was prescribed easily digestible high calorie with low residue diet, Civil Surgeon Quetta, Dr. Siddiqui and Dr. Mahmood clinical pathologist were called who brought microscope and reagents. They began investigations in the morning of Sunday, the 25th July 1948. Results were positive, Miss Fatima Jinnah was informed first and then the Quaid was told the results who took it quite calmly. He listened patiently and said. This means that I am suffering from tuberculosis, Dr. Col. Illahi Bux did not reply.

In the end the Quaid said, It doesn’t matter what is done is done; now tell me about it. How long have I had this disease? What are the chances of my overcoming it? How long will the treatment last? I should like to know everything and you must not hesitate to tell me the whole truth.

Dr. Col. Illahi Bux told him that definite opinion could not be given until he had seen the extent of disease on X-ray examination.   After this a telegram was sent (on 25.07.48) to Dr. Riaz Ali Shah, Dr. S.S. Alam, the X-ray specialist and Dr. Ghulam Mohammad, clinical pathologist of the Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Another telegram was sent to Karachi for certain medicines.

It will not be out of place to mention here that in reminiscences of Quaid-i-Azam’s last Aide-de-camp by Brigadier (then Captain) Noor Ahmed Hussain mentions that Dr. Col. Rehman, first personal Physician of the Quaid, told him in Karachi after his death that as early as December 1947, when he fell ill, an X-ray showed patches on his lungs. When this was mentioned to Quaid he brushed it aside remarking that it was another attempt on the doctors’ part to “experiment on him”. He did not like to believe, nor political enemies to know that the head of the new State was a sick or ailing man, lest they took undue advantage of it or make political capital out of it. The same reason explains the very great opposition we encountered from the Quaid and Miss Jinnah to our suggestions to send for the best specialist from USA or U. K. It will be recalled that within three days of Quiad’s death Indian troops had marched into Hyderabad state.

Mr. Jinnah always shrugged off speculations and enquiries from his worried friends as well as from inquisitive journalists. Even during his last days in his correspondence with a noted British journalist Beverly Nichols (of the Verdict on India fame), replied to his query about his health contained the cardinal sentence. There is nothing seriously wrong with me and advised him not to entertain any worries on account of his health. 

Next morning (26th July) after great discussion a lady compounder was engaged to take temperature and pulse every four hours.    Next day, i.e. on 27th July. Mr. M. A. H. Isphani, the Ambassador to USA, visited him. He asked Dr. Col. Illahi Bux if he needed any medical aid from America he could provide it by a special plane. 

Next day on 28th July Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and Secretary General Chaudhri Mohamed Ali came to see him.    In the evening Dr. Riaz Ali Shah, Dr. Alam and Dr. Ghulam Mohammed arrived. Next afternoon (29th July) Dr. Shah was introduced to Quaid. Dr. Alam took his X-ray with the portable machine which showed that the damage done to the lungs was much more extensive than guessed on physical examination and that the disease must have been going on insidiously with periods of exacerbation and remissions for at least two years. 

Next morning (30th July) Dr. Ghulam Mohammed confirmed previous laboratory findings. Mr. Ghazanfer Ali Khan, Ambassador to Iran, called on him (Mr. Mumtaz Ahmed Khan accompanied Raja Ghazanfer as press attachee and (remained with the private secretary). Dr. Col. Illahi Bux and Dr. Riaz Ali Shah next morning (31st July) familiarized Miss Jinnah with these findings and informed the Quaid about the line of treatment.

Dr. Shah while giving injection to Quaid persuaded him to engage a nurse to which he agreed.  As such a nurse Phyllis Dunham was engaged. Dr. Shah repeated the injection of the new medicine in the evening. Luckily it had no reaction or untoward effect. Next day the fever started coming down, and the day after, the temperature remained normal throughout. There was marked improvement in the cough, sputum and general condition. After that there was slow but definite improvement.  

On 3rd August Dr. Col. Illahi Bux obtained Quaid’s permission to go to Lahore for 4 days leaving him in Dr. Riaz Ali Shah’s care. In Lahore next day he received a telegram to return with Dr. S. S. Alam and his ultra violet apparatus. They left on Friday, 6th August, reaching Ziarat the same day. Dr. Shah informed him that the Quaid had grown weaker and his blood pressure had fallen considerably; so he had given injection coramine 7th August was Eid ul Fitr; on 9th August they noticed slight swelling of the feet with a reduction in the urinary output, so they decided to shift him to a lower altitude to Quetta.    On 11th August Miss Jinnah was informed that new symptoms indicated weakness of his heart and kidneys so he was shifted to Quetta on 13th August, 1948. Next morning was 14th August. At 8.30 am they found him much better. He said I am glad you have brought me here, I was caught up in a trap at Ziarat.

On the morning of 16th August he was X-rayed and his blood examined. The X-ray showed a definite improvement. The haemoglobin and red cells had risen by 20% white cell count had fallen to normal and the sedimentation rate had improved by 50%. 

 

On 23rd August, three weeks after, his temperature had been normal; he was asked to get up and move about to improve his circulation and well being but he became breathless after little exertion. After four days trial (24-28th) persistence of breathlessness was a clear evidence of a considerable reduction in lung tissue; which can improve at sea level where oxygen tension is much higher than at Quetta. It was suggested to him but Quaid remarked, “Go slow, don’t hustle me, I do want to get up and walk about but am not sufficiently strong yet”.

On weighing the weight of the Quaid-i-Azam, for the first time, was only 80 pounds; this was after four weeks of normal temperature and a nourishing diet. If he had been weighed four weeks before it would not have been more than 70 pounds; at his height of 5. 11 ½ it was an extremely low weight for him. He was allowed to smoke one cigarette (he smoked craven A fifty per day).   On 26th August he was again requested to move to Karachi (Miss Fatima Jinnah observed that he did not want to go to G. G. house as an invalid) but he was reluctant, hence other options of Sibi and then Malir were discussed.

 On 28th August it was noticed that his appetite was decreasing, there was a gradual reduction in the output of the urine. On the morning of 29th August Quaid told Dr. Col. Illahi Bux “you know”, he said, ‘when you first came to Ziarat I wanted to live, now however it doesn’t matter whether I live or die”. He had tears in his eye. When a patient gave up the fight no treatment, however perfect, could achieve much.

On 1st September we noticed minute haemorrhagic spots under the skin of the feet as well as lower legs and decided to give him vitamin preparation though he was averse to taking tablets.

On 3rd Sept in the evening Dr Shah took his temperature. It was 99 F Quaid’s normal temperature very rarely exceeded 96 F in the morning and 97.5 F in the evening. After five weeks of satisfactory progress this rise of temperature could not be explained.

On 5th September Dr. Ghulam Mohammed examined his sputum and found germs of Pneumonia and his blood showed acute infection. He had been injected twice a day for a fortnight at Ziarat, hence to give him three hourly injections now (since sulpha drugs disagreed with him and his kidney function was also poor) he refused but then relented; he was given crystalline, penicillin. Temperature on 6th Sept was normal, sputum examined on 7th Sept showed no pneumonia germs. However, by 12 O’clock there was another complication; he began to pass urine in small quantities very frequently and had a rigor, while the temperature rose to a higher level. He became restless with rapid breathing and asked for all the windows to be opened and ordered a table fan. He was given oxygen, his condition began to cause much anxiety. After consultation Miss Fatima Jinnah undertook to cable Mr. Ispahani for an American specialist, Dr. Hinshaw of Mayo clinic, Minnesota, USA. However M.A. H. Ispahani, Pakistan’s Ambassador to USA, after consultations selected Dr. Mcleod Riggins, of 140 East 54th Street New York (chest specialist) who could reach latest by 10th Sept. In the evening his temperature went up and injection of new medicine for kidney inflammation was started. On 8th September after some discussion, Dr. M. A. Mystery was sent from Karachi, That night Quaid was quite restless and Miss Jinnah would give him oxygen off and on. Dr. Mystery arrived on the morning of 9th September, who after examining Quaid said that everything possible had been done already. In the evening his temperature was less and he asked for the radio to listen to the news. Next morning, i.e., on 10th his temperature was sub normal, blood pressure was the lowest and he looked very toxic and weak. Persistence of toxemia after the temperature was disquieting. 

Miss Fatima Jinnah has written a forward to with the Quaid-i-Azam during his last days by Dr. Col. Illahi Bux on 14th August 1949. In this she says that the brief account of the last few days of a physician’s contact with the Quaid-i-Azam’s indomitable spirit would allay the deep anxiety of a perplexed people, who keenly desire to be acquainted with the Quaid-i-Azam’s ailment and the cause of his death. It will also set at rest several baseless rumours as to his illness and the time and place of his death.

In spite of such clear description by Dr. Col Illahi Bux there are writers of repute who have given out lung cancer as cause of his death. Amongst these most important is Stanley Wolpert in his book “Mohammed Ali Jinnah”. Similarly ‘Time Magazine’ 100, Aug 23-30 1999. Vol. 154 no 7/8 under the caption: “The father of Pakistan” by Michael Fathers just mention that one year after partition of India and birth of Pakistan he was dead from Cancer at 71. While the same Time Magazine in its 50 years (No.47) issue of December 23, 1996 repeated the same under a heading.

The great pleader for a Muslim state Mohammed Ali Jinnah created Pakistan out of oratory and blood by Carl Posey, states thus. Then on September 11, 1948 just 13 months after independence, the tuberculosis fuse burned down to nothing.

Miss Fatima Jinnah in her book “My Brother” recounts it thus. After we had covered about four miles the ambulance coughed, as if gasping for breath, and came to a sudden stop, after about fifteen minutes, I came out of the ambulance and was told that it had run short of petrol. 

 
 

SARDAR ABDUR RAB NISHTAR WAS A STAUNCH MUSLIM LEAGER AND A PAKISTANI

By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi
 

Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was born on 13th June 1890 at Peshawar. He passed matriculation examination from Mission High School Peshawar. He did his B. A. from Edward College Peshawar and LLB from Muslim University Aligarh in 1923. During his practice as a lawyer he joined Tehrik-e-Khilafat and participated in such Movement in 1930. He remained member a Congress Committee NWFP (1927-31).   He joined the All India Muslim League in 1936 and remained a member All India Muslim League Working Committee (1944-47) and he too was a member of Constituent Assembly (1947-54). He was Central Minister for Communication in the interim Government of Nehru (1946-47) as well before partition of sub-continent. 

After creation of Pakistan, the Council of the Pakistan Muslim League, held its first meeting at the local Frere Hall on 20 Feb 1948, it appointed a sub-committee of 11 to scrutinize the draft constitution placed before by the Convener, Mr Liaquat Ali Khan. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was given responsibility as the sub-committee’s convener. The Council met in camera, with Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the chair. Over 150 members from all over Pakistan, including the four provincial premiers and federal and provincial ministers, as well as Miss Fatima Jinnah attended the meeting which lasted for about two hours. It was a great honour to Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, just because of his devotion to Muslim League.

 

Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan made an explanatory speech on the draft. Placing the proposed constitution before the councilors Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Governor General of Pakistan in his 10 minute address exhorted the councilors to bear in mind that now that Pakistan had been established, the Pakistan Muslim League would function more or less as a political party and that its constitution was, therefore, to be re-framed. ( Dawn Feb 22, 1948).

Similarly Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar had contributed a lot against ‘Pathanistan stunt’ which was started by Redshirt Leader Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, brother Dr. Khan Sahib Chief Minister NWFP under the guidance of Olef Caro, the then Governor of NWFP, Olef Caro wrote a letter from Parachinnar Summer Headquarter of NWFP on May 22, 1947 to the Secretary of the State U. K and Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten that he has convinced Abdul Ghaffar Khan to start Pathanistan Stunt on this Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar stated on 26th June 1947: that the object of the Pathanistan move was to isolate the North West Frontier Province from Pakistan and ultimately make it a province of Hindustan, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar said in a statement that such a step would not only adversely affect the interests of Pakistan, but would also seriously threaten the freedom of the Pathans of the independent tribal areas.   It was a great below to Redshirt leader and Congress. 


 

Letter written by Olef Caro is produced here: -

Sir O. Caroe (North-West Frontier Province) to Sir J. Colville

(Extract)
Confidential                                                            GOVERNOR’S CAMP, PARACHINAR, 
No. GH-58                                                                                              22 May 1947
 

The interesting local development in the political field is that my Ministry and Abdurl Ghaffar Khan have started propaganda on a theme which I advised them to take up some months ago: that of a Pathan national Province under a coalition if possible, and making its own alliances as may suit it.   When I put it to them then they professed what amounted to fury at the mere suggestion. There is a good deal in the theme itself, and the appeal is a far more constructive one than that of Islam in danger. The switch-over has probably come too late, but to my mind it is a strength, and not a weakness, that Pathanistan cannot subsist financially or otherwise on its own legs. The weakness is that the Pathans have hithereto been too divided among themselves to set up a stable State, and where they have ruled they have ruled as conquerors of alien populations. They themselves had always been in a state of a larchy right through history until we came and put them in order. (Afghanistan is not really a Pathan State at all)”. Letter closed here. 

He added: It is the duty of every Muslim to nip this mischief in the bud. I hope it is not too late even now for me to appeal to Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan to unconditionally declare in favour of Pakistan that NWFP should become part of Pakistan. Thanks God due to efforts of such Muslim League Leader, Muslim League won referendum of NWFP, following of the result:  

                        Total Votes                :           5,72, 235

                        Votes cast for Hindustan    2,874                         : 15 %

                        Votes cast for Pakistan       2,89, 244       : 50149 %

 

After creation of Pakistan he was taken Minister in the Cabinet of Quaid-e-Azam alongwith Pirzada Abdus Sattar, Khan Liaquat Ali Khan Prime Minister, Malik Ghulam Muhammad, Finance Minister and Fazal ur Rehman Education Minister. Later on Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was given portfolio of Industry and Commerce because he was served as Finance Minister in NWFP in 1943 in the Cabinet of Sardar Aurangzeb and in All India Muslim League and India National Congress coalition Interim Government in 1946. He remained in Cabinet of Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazim ud Din and which was dismissed by Malik Ghulam Muhammad the then Governor General in 1953.

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Governor General Pakistan advised the Industries Department of Pakistan that it should hold Pakistan National Industries Conference in order to get recommendations from experts for production of electricity because we are lacking electricity in Pakistan.   

Pakistan Industries Conference was held in Karachi from December 13 to 17. The recommendations have been forwarded to the provincial and Central governments and the various ministries to enable them to take necessary steps for implementation. As the recommendations cover a vast field, they require examination by various authorities. Regarding power generation and distribution the Conference had recommended that Pakistan should aim at generating 500000 kilowatts in the next five to seven years to meet its requirements of electric power, both for industrial and other purposes and that the highest priority should be given to the generation of hydro electric power. 

It had recommended that while the Mianwali Hyde Project in the west Punjab and the Karnafulli project in East Pakistan should be taken up immediately and completed within the shortest possible time, the Rotrit and Nara Canal Projects in Sindh should also be taken up.

The Conference had recommended that every effort should be made to exploit the present coalmines in a scientific manner and the target of half million per annum of coal should be reached during this year.

If this Ministry was not illegally dissolved by the then Governor General, there was hope the construction of Kalabagh Dam would have started. Malik Ghulam Muhammad has not only damaged the democracy, but he has damaged industrial units of Pakistan which we are facing crises for the last many years due to lack of electricity because Hydel Dam could not be made at Kalabagh by all governments. 

Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was trustworthy person of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah reason is that he supported the flag of Muslim League and propagated the message of two nation theory, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was not elected at Peshawar seat of Muslim League or defeated in election 1945 but Quaid-e-Azam keeping his devotion recommended this gentleman in the cabinet of undivided India 1946. Nishtar was disciplined man, honest with more integrity and having the strong feeling of Muslim League and Pakistan. He has acted as Governor Punjab for two years. During this period he never allowed his children to use the staff car of Governor Punjab, once it so happened it was raining and officials of Governor House sent the sons of Governor in Staff Car, they were stopped at gate and they used to go to F. C. College and Government College on bicycle like other citizen. He said the children you can’t use the car because, you are sons of Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar? This car is for Governor Punjab, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar has no car. No house, no wealth, no plot and no industry.

While speaking at public meeting at Mochi Gate Lahore in 1956 during his illness, I was luckily there to listen to him in this meeting. Being a President of Pakistan Muslim League he said “You have certain complaints / observations about the some Leaders of Muslim League, I too have got certain complaints but mind it change the leadership not a party”. If you have some disagreement with Paish Imam of Masjid – change the Imam and don’t destroy Masjid. So if there is disliking for a leader, he should be voted out but integrity of party is important.   Mould yourself to perfection as a nation we should unveil the darkness of muslim nation. So as for different tribes and region. Attain elegance with beauty of your character. Blessing of Allah would be on those, who follow Him truly and practice saying of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Pakistan is unique country in the entire world, because it has been gifted by God on night of Laila tul Qadr, the holy month of Ramazan on 14th August 1947. Its creation has got many sacrifices, struggles and hardships. This is free country for the muslim and we take guidance from the holy Quraan.  Pakistani nation is full with intelligence and unique method of sacrifices and thus we are superior, bigger and higher muslim nation on the globe.   He said the Pakistan need advancement in the field of science, technology and industries but it need more discipline at all cost. So the God Almighty has provided you opportunity for exploring this earth in the shape of Pakistan with water and mines etc.

Pakistan was created for justice, for environment of peace and happiness for the people of Pakistan, therefore, it is responsibility of every Pakistani to avoid evil and be honest because we the muslims are accountable before God in the day of Last.

I have been advised that I should not move due to my cardiovascular problem but I thought time of death is fixed let me perform my function as President of Muslim League. Muslim League which was guided fully by the perfect leader Quaid-e-Azam. He was special person he has honour to head of Muslim State. He said we should follow the principle of Quaid-e-Azam, unity, faith, discipline, justice, fair-play and impartiality in our life. He died on 14 Feb 1958 and was buried in the premises museum of Quaid-e-Azam. 

During his last days of sickness he was lacking some money, another devotee of Muslim League Pir Sahib of Zakori Sharif visited him during his illness in Karachi, he was very much concern about his ill health and put some money under his pillow. So that it might help for his treatment and medicine. This human being feeling of Pir Sahib was not accepted by Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar when he saw this act he returned with the words “ I cannot create this instance in life, life is lengthy or short is in His hand. He expressed thanks of Pir Sahib who was companion of Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar in NWFP Referendum 12-17 July 1947 and during Civil Disobedience Movement. It may be added that Pir Sahib played great role during Pakistan Movement and in molding the minds of people of NWFP to vote for Pakistan. These religious and political leaders like Pir Sahib of Maniki Sharif and Zakori Sharif asked their followers to vote for Muslim League. This move defeated the Redshirt leader and All India Congress Party and thus NWFP became part of Pakistan.   The light given by respective Pir was big lamp against the wealth of Hindu National Congress and British Empire they have used all efforts that NWFP should become part of India instead of Pakistan. Role of Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar in creation of Pakistan and wining referendum of NWFP is important landmark in the history of Pakistan. Sardar was much attached to Islam, he was poet and good speaker. I as student of Middle and High School at Haripur had seen Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar in a public meetings during Referendum and Civil Disobedience Movement he was colourful speaker and he attracted the people with logic. We as small children used to arrange the meetings and inform the people about the meetings, through riding on tanga and drumming Naqara because there was no electricity and laud speakers.

 
 


 
 
TWO NATION THEORY
 

Ref: Kuldip Nayar – Dawn Aug 9, 2003. 

 

Mr. Kuldip Nayar who visited Pakistan alongwith other Indian peace people group and returned back to India having being the hospitality, friendship and other peace talk by the people of Pakistan. But in this letter, he mentioned that India’s partition is 56 years old. Still the controversy over the two nation theory has not ended. There is no controversy on Two Nation Theory. It was the reality which was practiced by All India Muslim League under dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Muhammad Ali Jinnah has fought for a Muslim nation not for any groups based upon caste. He advocated the cause of the Muslims of the sub-continent, who were not given justice then he propounded this path to achieve the Muslman’s real status. He too certainly said on 11 Aug 1947 “all Pakistani will be treated equally in the matter of State, because every citizen is to be required to be look after by the State. 

 

Muslims and Hindus are two different nations, they were neither one nor will be one because all the sensitive issues like marriages, worship, faith, belief, culture, civilization, history are entirely different in origin and paths. All the nations living in Pakistan or India can be called Pakistani or Bharti but all peoples living in Pakistan can be called Pakistani but not brother but all the living nations in India i.e. Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, and other casts cannot claim to be brother and sister. The same situation prevails in America, U. K. and elsewhere. People truly can be called American but religiously, culturally, cannot become one nation or brother and all live with peace. 

 

This is fundamental difference Muslims are Muslims, Hindus are Hindova and in the ideas of visiting peace loving mission from India and visiting peace loving mission from Pakistan to India, we are one nation. Hindus are Hindus and Muslims are Muslims. We are two different nations having different ideas, different bringing up growth in all circumstances of faith, Muslims and Hindus can live with peace, help, and love to each other on humanity basis, because the Muslims who follows Islam mean peace, peace and peace, comfort to neighbour and prosperity for the humanity. We should practice to live in peace and to help each in order to eradicate the poverty among the masses and we should admit that partition was reality, India has to be partitioned it was inevitable and now to talk on the partition is not fruitful. The Muslims were nation and nation got Pakistan, Indian peace loving leaders – Indian intellectuals – Indian religious leaders should accept the reality that Two Nation Theory was the truth and on this basis Muslim got Pakistan and Hindu got share of Bharat. Let us accept the reality and live with peace. Pakistan has come to being and will stay, its borders are clear, its intentions are clear that Pakistan want to live in peace and desire peace and self determination for the people of Kakshmir. Let Indian leadership follow the partition plan 3rd June, 1947 and the people of Kashmir may be given relief accordingly on self determination. We should not create hate, conflict among the youth that Pakistan was a mistake. It is against sentiments of those, who participated in Pakistan Movement- Quaid-e-Azam was not in favour of Partition of Punjab and Bengal. It was Patal, who sowed the seeds of hate and million of people were slaughtered – Pakistan means, majority areas of population of Muslims should be declared Muslim homeland and majority of area of Hindu population should be called Bharat. There was no idea of immigration or hate. Now done is done. Let us march with new spirit of good neighbourer and flourish economically, eradicate poverty, educate our population with tolerance and help to each other.   

 
 


 

TWO NATION THEORY -- CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION

 
 

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in 1942 had defined his concept Musalman and Hindu nations in the following way.

 

India of modern conception with its socalled present geographical unity is entirely the creation of the British who hold it as one administrative unit by a system of bureaucratic government whose ultimate sanction is the sword and not the will or the sanction of the people behind the government so established.   This position is very much exploited by the Hindu Congress and the Hindu organization, called the Hindu Mahasabha. India is a vast sub-continent. It is neither a country nor a nation.   It is composed of nationalities and races, the two major nations are the Muslims and the Hindus. Talk of Indian unity as one central constitutional government of this vast sub-continent is simply a myth.

The differences in India between the two major nations, the Hindus and the Muslims are a thousand times greater when compared with the continent of Europe. In fact the diversity of its races, religions cultures and languages has no parallel in any other part of the world; but fortunately the Muslim homelands are in the North Western and Eastern Zones of the sub-continent, where they are in a solid majority with a population of nearly 70 millions and they desire that these parts should be separated from the rest of India and constituted into independent sovereign states. The Muslim stand unequivocally for their own freedom and independence and also that of Hindus and the Hindu India in the Sub-continent of India whereas the Hindu machinations and all proposals and schemes suggested by them are intended and calculated to bring a hundred million Muslims under the subjugation and hegemony of the Hindu Raj over the entire sub-continent of India which means that Muslims shall be merely transferring their bondage of slavery from the British Raj to the Hindu Raj.

Prior to this written note of Quaid-e-Azam Lahore Resolution the most important document in the history of Indian Muslims for their freedom struggle was passed on 23rd March, 1940. The Lahore resolution had changed the direction of the Pakistan Movement. Thus with a passage of 7 years journey of struggle Pakistan came into being on the world’s map.

Reaction to Lahore Resolution:
 

The Resolution really fell like a bombshell on the Hindu Press. They sharply reacted against the Resolution. Responsible Congress leaders like Jawahar Lal Nehru and C. Raj Gopal Acharya felt themselves mentally disturbed. Rejected the League’s demand for partition of India and started a bitter criticism of the League, its scheme and its leader.

Gandhi while writing in his famous daily “The Harijan” on 6.4.1940 condemned the League’s partition scheme. He said that any vivisection of India would mean suicide.

Preparation of the Resolution.
 

The Lahore Resolution was prepared by the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of All India Muslim League on 21st March, 1940, which was finalised by some modification and Urdu version was made by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, the Editor of Daily Zamindar.

Mr Abu ul Kasim, A. K. Fazl e Haq ( the lion of Bangal) the then Chief Minister of United Bangal and a prominent leader of All India Muslim League was given the opportunity to present the resololutionj as a Representative of the Muslims of North-East Zone. It was seconded by Ch. Khaliquz Zaman, the prominent member of working committee of Muslim League and Legislative Assembly of un-divided India. This Resolution was prepared in the light of long historical processes by the best brains of Muslims under the able guidance and directive of the Quaid-e-Azam. 

This Resolution consisted of about 400 well-selected words and phrases in well-conceived four small paragraphs. It repudiated the federal scheme embodied in the Government of India Act, 1935 as it was unworkable and unsuitable to the Indian Muslims.

Secondly it demanded that the whole constitutional set up be revised de novo in accordance with the wishes of the Muslims. Thirdly in order to satisfy the aspiration of the Muslims of India the resolution categorically demanded the establishment of a separate, independent and sovereign Muslim State consisting of geographically contiguous Muslim majority provinces in the eastern and western zones of the country. Fourthly, to ensure protection to the minorities, who would happen to live in separate and independent states of Pakistan. It provided effective and mandatory safeguards. (Sharifuddin Pirzada’s Foundation of Pakistan Vol. II KP 1177-PP XXIII-XXIV).

 
PREPARATION OF LAHORE RESOLUTION
 
 

The Resolution was prepared by the Quaid-e-Azam in collaboration with some other leaders on March 21, 1940. It was finalised by a sub-committee of the League after some modification. It was rendered into Urdu by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan.

 
 
 
 
TEXT OF THE RESOLUTION
 

Following is the text of the Resolution. The Lahore Resolution resolved at the Lahore Session of the All India Muslim League held on March 22-24, 1940 under the Presidentship of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah:

1.            While approving and endorsing the action taken by the council and the working committee of the All India Muslim League as indicated in their resolutions dated 27th of Aug, 17th & 18th of September and 22nd of October, 1939, and 3rd of February, 1940, on the constitutional issue this session of the all India Muslim League emphatically reiterates that the scheme of federation embodied in the Government of India Act, 1935, is totally unsuited to, and unworkable in the peculiar condition of this country and is altogether unacceptable to Muslim India.

2.            It further records its emphatic view that while the declaration dated the 18th of October, 1939 made by the Viceroy on behalf of His Majesty’s Government is reassuring in so far as it declares that the policy and plan on which the Government of India Act, 1935, is based will be reconsidered in consultation with the various parties, interest and communities in India, Muslim India will not be satisfied unless the whole constitutional plan is reconsidered de novo and that no revised plan would be acceptable to the Muslims unless it is framed with their approval and consent.

3.            Resolved that it is the considered view of this session of the All India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principle, namely, that geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted, with such territorial readjustment, as may be necessary, that the areas in which Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern Zones of India, should be grouped to constitute ‘Independent States’ in which the constituent unit shall be autonomous and sovereign. That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and in these regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economical, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them, and in other parts of India where the Muslamans are in minority, adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specially provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economical, political, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with them. This session further authorizes the working committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defence, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters may be necessary.  

DEHLI RESOLUTION APRIL 9, 1946
 

After Lahore Resolution, the leadership of the Muslim League created significant trends of obtaining objective of the political order and rights to make the liberty possible thus the view point of the muslim in regard to freedom of independence and freedom of participation and involvement in the states affair has become distinct. This movement was the source of protection to the Muslims against the interference by Hindu or the British and thus the Quaid proposed and worked to have a separate homeland for constitutional obtaining, thus the Delhi Resolution on April 9, 1946 is the important in the history. 

The Pakistan Resolution of March 1940 was further clarified by a resolution unanimously passed by the Muslim League convention of elected MLA’s of the Centre and from the Provinces held under the Presidentship of the Quaid-e-Azam at Delhi on April 9, 1946.   Among other things the said Resolution specified that:

            The zones comprising Bengal and Assam in the North-East and Punjab, North-West of India namely, Pakistan zones, where the Muslims are in dominant minority, be constituted into a sovereign independent state and that an unequivocal undertaking be given to implement the establishment of Pakistan without delay. 

ALLAMA IQBAL’S CONTRIBUTION & MUSLIM POLITICS

 

Allama Muhammad Iqbal started taking active part in Punjab Politics and then he, by virtue of his talents and status for his philosophy and contribution, had attended the Muslim Conference held in Delhi (1929) under the Chairmanship of Sir Agha Khan His Highness and he made certain contribution through which he had invited the attention of the Muslims who were taking part in political field. There was acumen in the political field for the muslims, and through the discussion Iqbal was foresighted for active interest in politics and thus he was selected to preside at the annual session of Muslim League in December 30, 1930. At Allahabad.

Keeping in view, the problems of the Muslims and ill behaviour of the Hindus towards the Muslims, inner provoking and thinking was conceived in the form of resolution and Allama Iqbal suggested formation of Muslim India within India the Present Pakistan. The Allama in his historical presidential address said: I would like to see Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated in a single state self govt within the British Empire or withoutBritish Empire, the formation of consolidated North-west Indian muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the muslims, atleast of north-west India (Iqbal profecided in his prediction and remarkable speech).

 

He predicted in his remarkable speech which is now composition of present Pakistan. It means that he had done lot of efforts and thinking to this idea which was born in his mind, which has become the sole objective muslim masses of India. 


 
PARTICIPATION   IN   PAKISTAN   MOVEMENT AT HARIPUR HAZARA
OF PROF. DR. M. A. SOOFI 
 

I was born at Haripur on 28.07.1931. My fathers name was Muhammad Abdullah Rajput and grandfather was Bakhtawar Chohan Rajput, we lived in a Hindu Mohallah and we had to deal with them. Since our forefathers converted to Islam after migration from Rajputana, we had inherited the Hindu culture in matters like marriages and other ceremonies though much of it has been discontinued.   My father was a simple person I did my primary school education and was removed from the school to look after the cattle –goats and other domestic animals. This was done under conspiracy of Hindu Bania who advised my father that, if his son continued education in high school he shall not give him relief in his work and he shall be independent and will be away from him. He should look after the field and cattles and get him married after sometime. He is young (Gabro). So, the circumstances of sub-continent & Hindu conspiracy compelled me to do what I was assigned to do, but I had an urge to get education and finally compelled my father for re-admission in the 5th class. My admission was postponed each year. Hindu was watching my activities, however after perhaps 3 years I got myself admitted at Sanatum Dherm in about 1944 with the promise that I shall look after the cattles and home affairs alongwith my studies. I was very eager, keen in my study and worked hard in Hindu School and was reading for competition with Hindus and became the monitor of the 5th class.   Almost all teachers were Hindu except Urdu and Persian and Arabic Teachers who were Muslims. 

 

I topped 6th class and appeared in 7th class, topped again and was promoted to 8th class and I prepared myself for middle class scholarship. I was certain to win the scholarship but was debarred from appearing for being overage by one or two days.   It was a very sad day for me. I had struggled a lot. Mathematics, Geography, Science all subjects were taught in English but I could not take the examination of competition. These were the circumstances that impelled me to support as much inclined towards the Pakistan Movement because the Hindu mindset was determined to destroy the future of the Muslims. Thus when I passed 8th class, Hindu had left for India after partition.   I was very active in making speeches in announcement for All India Muslim League. My Muslim teachers used to write for me and I was a very effective small boy in public meetings and in looking after the matters.

I participated in Pakistan Movement as a school boy while I was in 7-8th class 1946-7 at Sanatum Dherm High School Harripur Hazara. Freedom movement was in full swing, All India Muslim League was very active in these days. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President All India Muslim League was very popular. He was fighting for the cause of Muslims of Sub-continent, and the local congress leaders were against the creation of Pakistan. Our district leadership was under the presidentship of Khan Bahadur Jalalud Din alias Jalal Baba (Abbotabad). We were having activities under All India Muslim League National Guards Haripur.   Seith Abdul Hameed, Sheikh Ghulam Hussain and Faiz Muhammad Khan of Kalabut were very active local leaders at Haripur and later on Malik Aziz ur Rahman was president and I was attached with All India Muslim League National Guard as flag bearer. I was a well known boy with high spirit of Muslimhood. We were very keen  to face the local Hindus and Sikhs in Kabadi, Wrestling and Gatka.   

Moreover, I used to announce declaration of meetings of All India Muslim League at Tanga with my loud voice. There used to be no electricity and no loud speaker. We used to beat drums. We were working against the influential people of All India Congress. Muslims in those days were economically as all the business was in hands of Hindus but we possessed more spirit and confidence in leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.  My job was to propagate the message of the Muslim League commitment to self-reliance and justice for all.   Many times, I was beaten by the Hindu and Congress Leaders, when I used to shout slogans in favour of Muslim League and Quaid-e-Azam in All India Congress meetings, in meetings of Khudai Khidmatgar. I once shouted in a public meeting to be addressed by Pandat Jawahir Lal Nehru at Haripur, I was beaten and caught by Police taken to jail and released immediately as I was a boy.  

When Pakistan came into being I had passed 8th class however, I could not see Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah when he visited Peshawar in 1948.   I was away to Kashmir as a Mujahid but I listened to him on the Radio on 3rd June 1947.  

I saw Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah in 1948 when she came to Haripur for inauguration of Girls High School, I was her bodyguard standing beside of her car as National Guard worker.   When I was in 10th class I participated in Kashmir War 1948 and on return from Kashmir I appeared in  matriculation exam (1949) at Peshawar and passed from Punjab University. I was very popular among Muslim students for making them aware of the policies of Congress and taking the students along in the groups to work for Muslim League. Our motto was “if you are Muslims, join the Muslim League, then Pakistan shall come into being and India will be divided. There was great crises during Referendum 1947 in NWFP which was held on 12-17th July, 1947. This Referendum was held to give an option to the people of NWFP that whether they want to join Indian dominion or Pakistan dominion? Congress was working very hard and giving money to the people and Congress Leaders and Khudai Khidmatgar had cherished hopes that if people opt for India, they will flourish more.   We used to take procession from the villages against the NWFP Congress Government headed by Dr. Khan brother of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan as they were very much against Muslim League, Quaid-e-Azam and Pakistan. They had the opinion that during Election of 1946 Congress Party of NWFP won 21 seats, whereas Muslim League got 17 seats out of a total of 38 seats.   They wanted to be part of India on this basis. Muslim leaders like Abdul Qayyum Khan and others started civil disobedience against Dr. Khan on 28th Feb. 1947. We were arrested by Dr. Khan.   Lord Mountbettan Viceroy of India visited NWFP and saw the popularity of Muslim League and declared Referendum.  

There was no university in NWFP till Pakistan came into being and no new college was opened by Dr. Khan’s Ministry, though he was remained Chief Minister from 1937 to 1947. Only two colleges at Peshawar, one Islamia College created by Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and second Edward College Peshawar created by Prince Edward were present in NWFP for general education.   During Dr. Khan and his brothers government 1937-1947. They helped Hindu and All India Congress Party.   They acted like feudal lords and gained vital benefits for themselves by British, this is the reason that they were against independence of Muslim State and they wanted that muslim majority province NWFP to be part of India. But the Muslim League acted upon as the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah stressed upon the muslims of this area, that they should come forward to join muslim league so that muslim should capture, economy and political power themselves and, he never (Quaid) wanted to keep the muslim under Yoke of Hindu, having getting freedom from the British Rulers. We have been taking procession and procession during civil disobedience 1947 and I used to carry small goat on my shoulder and used to chant “Gandhi Ke Babay Mai” because Gandi Ji used to have milk of goat. He was against slaughter of cow. His actual nutrition was a goat milk.    So I used to carry goat on my shoulder as a symbol of Gandi Ji.   Some time I used to carry Charkha on my shoulder s Ghandi Ji.   With the result that the Khan Brothers boycotted the Referendum 1947 and started slogan of Pakhtonistan which Alaf Caro, then Governor NWFP gave them. So Muslim League won Referendum and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947.

It was a great day, early rays of the sun on 14th Aug. 1947, were different showering happiness on Muslims of Sub-Continent under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and we got our home for our rule and for practicing democratic methods. It was for us to develop trust of democracy in Pakistan will be created for Muslim and Pakistan.   

It was sad situation, on the day when Muslim refugees from India after suffering by Hindu of Central India and Punjab came to Haripur with broken hearts and tears in their eyes, that it was the most regretful situation for muslims, who left their homes in India for Pakistan. Some have lost their brothers, mothers, fathers and sons and some have seen most difficult seen of jumping into dark Well by their sisters and daughters to save their respect from Hindu.   I played my part to get them settled under the banner of Muslim League National Guard, we provided them adequate food, shelter and health care to brothers in the camps and in the homes. Now those people are Seith and respectful citizens of the society at Haripur.   On the other side, when the Hindu left this area, they left household things, even we found Chapati in the Thall, but no man was there on Choka. Later on Mohajir have taken over the houses and land of Hindus. However, some local opportunists occupied the houses left by the Hindu. The common man could not have anything. 

Before participation there were 3 high schools at Haripur Khalisa High School however, the Muslims were also given admission for example (Field Marshal) Muhammad Ayub Khan and his brother Sardar Bahadar Khan were the students of Khalsa High School Haripur. There was Santun Dherm High School introduced by Hindus such Utam Chand Sani. These two schools were of Hindus, but the Muslims were given opportunity for admission. There was Government high school, where Muslims were students in all the classes but the Hindu teachers were there.  After partition when Hindu and Sikh left for India our school was closed due to lack of teachers. We were in 9th class in 1947 in Government High School.   This was the link of our study with our mother land. We were lacking the Muslim teachers in science and other subjects but with our local resources I could secure the first division in matric from the University of Punjab in 1949 having science and drawing subjects. So during the students life I was working for Pakistan of course I was encouraged by the seniors citizens and teachers for commitment to the cause of Muslim League.   Muslim League organization allowed us younger generation and we have proved as supporter of political process of Muslim League. I was taken into jail by the police many times and they was used to dropped at 6 to 7 miles away from homes being small child and I used to run back home barefooted.   We the Muslims were in compelling position economically, socially at Haripur and Hindu were Feudal and Government ruling all our valuables ornaments, land, house were in the possession of Hindu as ‘Rehn’.     The business and trade in their hand and reduced to poverty over Muslim and infrastructure in service, Hindu were in the top position in administration.   We, the Muslims were uneducated, illiterate but the Hindu were clever, they used to persuade the Muslims – education is not good, do you job – keep the cattle-goats etc. graze them, you shall be comfortable. They (Hindu) used to incite Muslims for celebrating marriages & Khatna etc. So, Hindu was clever. It is blessing of God, that with struggle of Muslim League, we got Pakistan.  

Now I am retired Principal, College of Community Medicine, Lahore 1991 and
 

¨      Selected British Council Scholar in U. I. 1965-66.

¨      Member British Society Periodontology, U. K. 1966.

¨      Regent, International College of Dentists for Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh (USA). (By virtue of this authority, I can recommend International Award of FICD to the Dental Surgeon of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan).

¨      Chairperson/ Life Member, Pierre Fauchard Academy (USA) (By virtue of this authority, I can recommend International Award of MPFA to the Dental Surgeon of Pakistan and Bangladesh).

¨      Member International Dental Hygienists Federation.

¨      Ex-General Secretary, Pakistan Dental Association, Center (United Pakistan)
1969-71.

¨      Provincial Chief of Public Relation Cell, PMA, Punjab, 1970.

¨      Ex-President, Pakistan Dental Association, Lahore Branch, 1973-1996.

¨      Ex-Member Federation Dentair Internationale, 1981.

¨      Elected Fellow of Public Health Association of Pakistan, 1983.

¨      Specialist Member International Academy of Periodontolgy (London) 1989-92.

¨      Ex-Fellow and Secretary of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine (London) 1990.

¨      Ex-National Coordinator World Health Organization, Pakistan, 1990-91.

¨      National Coordinator of WHO on Oral Health in Pakistan, 1991.

¨      Ex-Hon. Prof. de’Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, 1991-95.

¨      Ex-Convener and Examiner for MCPS in Public Health Dentistry College of Physician and Surgeon Pakistan, 1991-95.

¨      Ex-President, South Asian Dental Associations Federation (SADAF) 1993-95.

¨      President convener of Quaid-e-Azam Forum, 1994.

¨      Secretary General, Quaid-e-Azam Forum, 1995.

¨      Selected Member Hamdard Shura, Lahore, 1996.

¨      Chairman Committee of Tibia College Lahore, 1999.

¨      President Pakistan Academy of Handicaps Lahore.

¨      Ex-Examiner of BDS, Dentistry, Punjab University, Lahore.

¨      Member of Editorial Board, Quarterly “jopdak” Pakistan Dental Association, Karachi.

¨      Chief Editor monthly “Dental Guide”, Lahore.

 


HOW I KNOW MOHTARMA FATIMA JINNAH

 

Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah was born on 31st July, 1893 at New NEHM, Karachi, did her martic examination 1910, educated in English Medium School for Senior Cambridge 1913 and got admission at Ahmed Dental School Calcutta-India to learn the art and science of Dentistry in 1922. After completion of two years course she got a license to practice. She started dental practice in Bombay at private level and started a free dental clinic (1923-1929).   Mrs. Marryam Jinnah wife of Quaid-e-Azam died on Feb. 20, 1929.   Quaid-e-Azam suffered a great shock at this loss of a pretty, social and intelligent wife. In order to give support to her brother at this difficult stage of his life she had to leave the dental profession and she joined her brother to assist him in his political, social and domestic life.   She did a tremendous job as companion, as counsel and worker. Fatima Jinnah became a leading woman due to her wisdom and dedication.   She guided the Muslim women in political and educational activities.   She joined all the activities of her brother and made a great contribution for creation of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam formed a women committee in 1938 at Patna and she had been leading the women and counseling her brother all this time. 

 

She came to Karachi with her brother on 7th August, 1947 when the British Unionist flag was flying on the sub-continent. On 14th of August, Union Jack flag was down and Pakistan Flag was hosted.   Miss Jinnah remained with Quaid-e-Azam during his last days at Ziarat and she was nursing her brother and was helping the medical doctors in his treatment.   After the death of her brother on 11 Sept 1948, she remained quiet.   In 1964, she contested elections against Field Martial Muhammad Ayub Khan and she was supported by all the opposition parties.   She was known as Madir-e-Millat due to her contribution.

 

I met her first time in my early days of school life as bodyguard in 1948, when she visited Haripur to lay down foundation stone of Girls School at Haripur and I being member of National Guard was standing on the paddle of her car and observed .  

 

She was thin, slim, well dressed and polished lady. She had immense power of speech and she delivered her speech to each category of women at girls school Harripur. It was very exciting moment in my life to be bodyguard because I could not see Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, when he visited April, 1948 Peshawar.   On Quaid visit to Pakistan Military Academy Abbottabad in order to host flag of Pakistan, due to his sickness he could not visit Abbottabad. Thus we could not see Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.   Miss Fatima Jinnah was true picture of her brother intellectually and mannerly. She possesses all the prominent habits of Quaid-e-Azam. Her speech was delivered by Radio Pakistan Peshawar. She traveled by car to Harripur Hazara for inauguration of Girls School because there was no girls high school in 1947, when she reached near government school Harripur listen tune of loud beater by prinor of Haripur school band and she loudly shouted stop it, and we were surprised that she was in high school.   In 1952 she was visited King Edward Medical College as a Chief Guest on annual sports day. I was 1st year student de’Montmorency College of Dentistry and our basic subjects and another subjects were taught in KEMC, on hearing Miss Fatima Jinnah is visiting Lahore I went to office of the Principal Prof. Col. Elahi Bukhsh, he was very graceful, intellectual and wise person. I desired that I would like to welcome Madir e Millat with English poem and I placed my poem before the principal, he looked and smile at me and asked me have you write, he allowed and I read the poem in her honour. (poem attached, it was very much appreciated).  

 

I was very active and social worker for T. B. Patients Welfare Association. I was health educator and convenor T. B. Patients Welfare Association. Dr. Riaz Ali shah the then head of the Chest Department KEMC was president of the association, and he was co-physician to Quaid-e-Azam in last days at Ziarat. Dr. Riaz Ali Shah being President of T. B patients Welfare Association invited Miss Fatima Jinnah at Lahore to inaugurate T. B. Centre thus she came near Shama Cinema Ferozepur Road, she laid a stone of T. B. Centre which has been removed later on. 

 

She had missionary spirit for stronger Pakistan. I accompanied here during her election tour in 1964, election against Ayub Khan from Lahore to Sukhar. I have seen her and listened her speeches at each Railway Station against the military regime. During this journey famous Urdu poet was in this train, train stopped at any station, laud speaker was fixed everywhere, here and there it used to be big crowed—people were eager to have look of Mader e Millat – slogans were showed. Poet Habib Jalib used to say: She is your mother, come on her Sida ... It is guarantee for your heaven. She realized the people that Pakistan was created for the common man, for democracy, for justice and society should have such thing and we should conduct democratic procedure in order to make the ideal democratic Islamic Pakistan. She was welcomed at each Railway station by the people.


 
FEDERATION (DEMOCRACY) NOT CONFIDERAL SYSTEM
THE ONLY WAY OUT
Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi

Democracy means to begin with, majority rule, Majority rule in a single nation, in a single society is understandable.....Representative government in a single nation, harmonious, homogeneous, and one is understandable. But you have only got to apply your mind for a few minutes to see this truth. Can such a system ever work or succeed when you have two different nations... indeed more than two different nations in this sub-continent, when you have two totally different societies, the Muslim Society and the Hindu Society?

(Quaid’s address April, 1941, at Madras, Jinnah the Founder of Pakistan P-104).

You have fought many a battle on the far-flung battlefields of the globe to rid the world of the fascist menace and make it safe for democracy.   Now you have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic Social Justice, and the equality of manhood, in your own native soil. 

Quaid was constitutional person, who believed in rule of law for all the citizen, for him every man is citizen, and Muslims are equal citizen of India and Muslims are all members of the Muslim Nation. He fought the case and won it. .. thus Pakistan is a democratic federation.

(Ref: Quaid’s address February, 1948 at Malir, Jinnah the Founder of Pakistan)

Therefore Democracy is long term perspective in Pakistan.   This system is unparalleled in Federation and provides opportunities to men and women for justice and equality.   This confederal system does not provide understanding to commitment. Democracy is a global institution of any federation.   It provides strength to face the challenges of tomorrow. The racial system does not raise the innovative solutions, because it gives network of languages cast and creed. Today and tomorrow, our commitment are to our land’s stronger than ever as a federation. 

The confederal system—needs explanation.

The need for a separate homeland for the Muslims has become necessity because of adverse relation with Hindu – and I quote:

The State of Pakistan was founded through the expression of will of the Muslims of the sub-continent.   The emergence of this state cannot be de-linked from its ideology for the preservation of which all our past and future generations are equally involved. No one generation, community, organ or individual in this state has any power to undo the same or weaken its foundation so far as its basic realities are concerned. This underlying philosophy has been stated in a supra-constitutional instrument to which not only our founding fathers but also the people at different times of our short history, have assented. It is the objective Resolution passed in 1949. All the constitutional documents intended to work as permanent constitutions were purported to have been based on this supra constitution.   

Ref: Objectives Resolution – Judgements on the Constitution, Rule of Law, and Martial Law in Pakistan. P-362 by Dr. Nasim Hassan Shah.

 

The objective resolution, which has been made a substantive part of constitution was presented before the Constituent Assembly on March 7, 1949 and adopted it on 12 March, 1949. It become preamble to the constitution of 1956, the Constitution of 1962, interim constitution 1972 and constitution of 1973. It explains ideological Foundation of Pakistan. 

 

The speech of Liaqat Ali Khan in Constituent Assembly also expresses the objectives of Pakistan.

Sir,

              “ I consider this to be the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance only to the achievement of independence, because by achieving independence we only won an opportunity of building up a country and its polity in accordance with our ideals. I would like to remind the House that the father of the nation, the Quaid-e-Azam gave expression to his feelings on this matter on many an occasions and his views were endorsed by the nation in unmistakable terms. Pakistan was founded because the Muslims of this sub-continent wanted to build up their lives in accordance with the teachings and traditions of Islam, because they wanted to demonstrate to the world that Islam provides a panacea to the many diseases which have crept into the life of humanity today”.

 

 And he concluded his speech with these memorable words:

 

This objective Resolution is the first step in the direction of the creation of an environment which will again awaken the spirit of the nation. We, whom destiny has chosen to play a part, howsoever humble and insignificant, in this great drama of national resurrection, are overwhelmed with the magnitude of the opportunities which are before us. Let us use these opportunities with wisdom and foresight, and I have not the least doubt that these humble efforts will bear fruit far in excess of our widest expectations, through the help of a providence which has brought Pakistan into existence. It is not every day that great nations come into their own; it is not every day that peoples stand on the threshold of renaissance; it is not every day that destiny beckons the down-trodden and the subjugated to rise and greet the dawn of a great future. It is the narrow streak of light heralding the brilliance of the full day, that we salute in the form of this Resolution.

 

Ref: (See Vol. V—1949, Official Report of the Fifth Session of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan Debates). (Judgements on the Constitution, Rule of Law and Martial Law in Pakistan P-366 by Dr. Nasim Hassan Shah).

 

So there is no need for any apprehension why Pakistan was made and explanation has been given in text speech of Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaquat Ali Khan Pakistan came into being to provide equal opportunity to each individual (men & women) to enhance his fate.

 

Pakistan is not multinational State. It is only one state of one nation Pakistan. It has got 4 Units of Federation. It has got approval of constitution 1973. It’s state language is urdu. Pakistan was not created by 4 nations Muslims of sub-continent struggled for it under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam and Muslim League.

Let us how know about the State:

At the time of the constitutional reforms leading to the Government of India, India was divided into tow parts – British India and the Indian States. While British India comprised the nine Governor’s provinces – which were increased to eleven after coming into force of the aforementioned Government of India Act, 1935... and, some other areas administered by the Government of India itself, the Indian States comprised some 562 states which were mostly under the personal rule of rulers or chiefs. All the 562 Indian States were not of the same order.   Some of them were States under the rule of hereditary chiefs, which had political status even prior to the conquests of India by the Muslims; others (about 300 in number), were estates or jagirs granted by the Muslim rulers as rewards for services or otherwise, to particular individuals or families. But the common feature that distinguished these 562 States or thereabout from British India was that the Indian States had not been annexed by the British Crown.    So, while British India was under the direct rule of the Crown through its representatives and according to the statutes of Parliament and enactment of the Indian legislatures, the Indian States were allowed to remain under the personal rule of their chiefs and princes under the sovereignty of the Crown, which was assumed over the entire territory of India when the Crown took over authority from the East India Company in 1968.   

Lord Canning then made the pronouncement:

The Crown in England stands forth the unquestioned ruler and paramount power in all India.

The relationship between the Crown and the Indian States since the assumption of sovereignty by the Crown came to the described by the term “Paramountcy”. The Crown was bound by engagements of a great variety with the Indian States. A common feature of these engagements was that while the States were responsible for their own internal administration, the Crown accepted the responsibility for their external relations and defence.   The Indian States had no international life, and for external purposes, they were practically in the same position as British India. As regards internal affairs, the policy of the British Crown was normally one of non-interference with the monarchian rule of the rulers, but the Crown interested itself in cases of misrule and maladministration, as well as for giving effect to its international commitments. So, even in the internal sphere, the Indian States had no legal right against non-interference, and so Lord Reading explained to the Nizam of Hyderabad:

              The sovereignty of the British Crown is supreme in India and therefore, no ruler of an Indian State can justifiably claim to negotiate with the British Government on an equal footing.

Nevertheless, the rulers of the Indian States enjoyed certain personal rights and privileges and normally carried on their personal administration unaffected by all political and constitutional vicissitudes within the neighboring territories of British India.

The Government of India Act, 1935 envisaged a federal structure for the whole of India, in which the Indian States could figure as units, together with the Governor’s provinces. Nevertheless, the framers of that Act differentiated the Indian States from the provinces in two material respects. The two points of difference were:

a.            While in the case of the provinces, accession to the federation was compulsory or automatic in the case of an Indian State, it was voluntary and depended upon the signing by the ruler of an Instrument of Accession, and its acceptance by the Crown;

b.            While in the case of the provinces, the authority of the federation over the provinces (executive as well as legislative) extended over the whole of the federal sphere delineated by the Act --- in the case of the Indian States the authority of the federation, could be limited by the instrument of accession and all residuary powers belonged to the state. It is needless to elaborate on the details of the plan of 1935, for the accession of the Indian States to the proposed federation never came about and this part of that Act was finally abandoned in 1939, when World War II broke out. 

When Sir Stafford Cripps came to India with his plan in 1942, it was definitely understood that the plan proposed by him would be confined to settle the political destinies of British India, and that the Indian States would be left free to retain their separate status. This was later made clear by the Cabinet Mission (in 1946).

But the Cabinet Mission proposed that the Indian States would be ready to cooperate with the new developments in India. So, they recommended that there should be a Union of India, embracing both British India and the States, which would deal only with foreign affairs, defence and communications while, the States would retain all powers other than these.

When the Indian Independence Act, 1947 was passed, it declared the lapse of sovereignty and paramountcy of the Crown, vide Section 7(1) (b) of the Act. (Ref: Devolution of Princely Ruler’s Property, P-127-9, Judgements on the Constitutions Rule of Law and Martial Law in Pakistan by Dr. Nasim Hassan Shah). If we allow to call each Province Sovereign State based upon language. Then each state will have Independent views, and can accede to any country. This idea is against the creation of Pakistan.  

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, father of the Nation conceived the idea of the Muslim Nation and with his political life and character of highest order.   He added Pakistan on Map of World now the destiny of the nation (Pakistan) lies with the federation and this is available in the constitution of 1973.   We cannot drop out any province in the form of state, among the four provinces of Pakistan and this idea of confederation is not approved by the people of Pakistan. This will split the country and new constitution is to be framed. We had lot of explanation regarding the state, and ‘sovereignty’ and we have fully explained the term ‘nation’ and nationality, supported by the documents of law because the confederation idea is distractive in nature and application. I, therefore, emotionally appeal, to the intellectuals and, political workers and the Govt. that they should solve the small Provinces problem and they should provide equal opportunity programme, so that all the decisions of the country should be carried out within constitution so that heart burning may vanish. The political ambitions are various in nature but this political trend is dangerous for the country. We have to see that Pakistan becomes stronger, better on the roads of prosperity, it can only be achieved if all the provinces realize their responsibilities and contribute towards the community and Pakistan. The solidarity of the country should be considered of paramount important once as compared to the political slogans of this nature. Quaid-e-Azam always shared the strength and wisdom of the working committee and thus undoubtedly, the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam strode over many hurdles. Therefore, the leaders should adopt the working of the All India Muslim League Council. Pattern that is the way to success.     

 
 


PROVINCE OF PUNJAB, WE LIVE IN – ITS POSITION IN HISTORY

(IN DEFENCE OF PUNJAB)

 

Punjab is being blamed by the so called Nationalists who are asking for confederal system i.e. Autonomy Sovereignty of the Provinces or Unites.

Punjab is situated in the north west of Indo-Pakistan and held a very unique position through out history. Lahore was capital of Punjab in older days. The city of Lahore was founded in an historic way.   Origin of Lahore (Punjab) is attributed to Prince Loh; son of the legendary Rama or Ram Chandra, the hero of the famous epic named Ramayana. The city might have been founded some times in the early centuries of the Christian era. Then the various Hindu chieftains specially the Rajputs contributed to its expansion and development.   During the early decades of the 11th century, the celebrated Ghaznavid monarch Mahmud occupied and integrated it, to his fast growing Sultanate. It has been recorded by contemporary chroniclers that the Sultan built here in the Lahore Fort a victory tower to commemorate the subjugation of the famous Hindu temple of Somnath in southern India in 1025 A.D, while his slave and governor Ayaz added a few more buildings to the fort of Lahore. 

About 15 Ghaznavid Sultans ruled Lahore through their generals and viceroys for 165 years when, in 1186 A.D, it was ceded to Sultan Shahabud Din Ghuri. It was here in Lahore that Qatab ud Din Aibek was enthroned in 1206 A. D. as the first Sultan of the Turkish Sultanate. During the next three and a half centuries (1206 to 1526 A.D) Lahore served as the important provincial city under the successive rulers known to history as the Sultans of Dehli. The Lodhi Sultans added several buildings to the city and the fort. In 1524 A.D, the city was taken over by Zaheer ud Din Muhammad Babar, the founder of the Moghal Empire, though he did not stay here for long and is said to have put various quarters of the city on fire. His son and successor Hamayun visited Lahore for a while on his way to Persia through Sindh, but stayed in a newly created Kamran Baradari. It was Akbar who lived here in the fort for well over 13 years and made the city his Dar us Saltanate. His successors added, in turn, several palaces and pavilions, thus making the fort a real representation of the art and architecture of the Moghals’ aristocracy. Empire Shahjahan built most beautiful palaces in 1631-32 A.D. in Moghals period. He added a large lofty hall with several rooms at the back and on the sides.   As many as five decorative crafts embellish the building. The chambers were originally decorated with fresco paintings and gilt work but was later on covered with glass-mosaic work done on the walls. There is a spacious courtyard having four fountains in front of the Shish Mahal. Four water channels, one on each side, connect the basin with other buildings.

So historically Punjab (Lahore) occupies a very significant position, in regard to civilization, education and socio-economic prominence. During the Sikh regime Punjab was extended up to Peshawar. Lahore was Rajdhani and extra-ordinary importance was attached to it. British crown, took possession of Punjab (NWFP) in 1848. NWFP was part of Punjab till 1901, when Lord Curson, separated six backwards district of Punjab and took some tribal area for administration and named it NWFP. This was done to confirm Durand Line accord (1855) so Punjab had its dominant position. Knowledge is always for better health-social activities and expression – it gives organizing behaviour and management and Punjab became the fountainhead of Politics and civil services and other careers.

NWFP was under Commissioner till 1930. After Act of 19935, it was made under Governor-Baluchistan was under Governor General till one unit was formed. Sindh has similar position. So smaller Provinces were at distance in Art and Science, Business, Education, Technology and Economical growth before creation of Pakistan.   So, development work started after 1947. NWFP was left alone in whole of India due to her backward position while India was given right of self Govt., in all the Provinces of India except in NWFP. It was Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah who argued that this part of land be given importance in 1930.

AGRICULTURE

Naturally Punjab became more advanced in rest of systems. This is the system of sixteen century, which was not available elsewhere. Pre-partition days, the farmers of the Punjab had better knowledge of the crops, when after act of 1935, central marketing staff were required to give assistance to the Province of Punjab because of its productivity in developing grain. The cultivators of Punjab had improved quality of grain. Punjab cultivator was smart in production. Punjab is located neither to equator nor to the poles. It is in the zone of temperate and dry areas on the map of the World. Major areas of Punjab have four clearly defined seasons.   The weather makes the climate pleasant, which help the plants, grain to grow – Human and animal live with ease.

The certain areas of NWFP, where climate is cold, prevailing weather conditions over a long period of year, these are main factors for retardation of progress in trade economics and cultivation and Industry. Similar conditions are available in certain areas of Baluchistan, where temperature and strong winds stand in the way of mobility. So the climate is another factor in the growth of education, wind cold weather and rain do affect the life style.  

CLIMATE

Punjab is stylish in temperature, there are hottest areas in it like Rajistan, where temperature is very high and hardly there is rain.   It represents like deserts, water in such area is not available.   This area depends upon almost on rainfall and desert well to get water. Sibi in Baluchsitan and Jackababad in Sindh are also desert, where sun is very hot, less rain, people have to make efforts to get water and life is difficult. Under ground canal system for availability of water is available in tier of Baluchsitan and most of area depends upon snowfall.

Punjab was ahead in Horticulture, because water supply was sufficient due to its canal system. Punjab faced (Kahat famine in 1859 which was extended to Kashmir and Peshawar. Therefore Govt. of India decided to make its canal upper Bari in 1860, at the cost of one crore and 27 lakhs at that time, later on comprehensive Canal System in Punjab was developed. Therefore, Punjab became a leading force in production of the grains. Punjab (Lahore) had many Industries owned by Hindu. Hindu claimed that Lahore should be a part of India as Hindu Industry paid more taxes in 1947. 

HEALTH

The coming of the British made little difference at first, they had little to offer in the field of sanitation but with the rapid advance of knowledge of the causation, prevention, and treatment of disease, the way was opened for medical relief and public health. In the early days of the East India Company, the British doctors confined their activities to the treatment of servants of the Company, for whom hospitals were opened as early as 1664. Towards the end of the 18th century a hospital was provided for Indians in Calcutta. The records show that 115 in patients and 101 out patients were treated in 1794 and that the figures had risen to 218 and 4,,443 by 1803.   In Bombay and Madras, hospitals for Indians were opened around the year 1800. The first mofussil hospital was established at Dacca in the year 1804 and by 1840 there was about a dozen hospitals for Indians in various large towns besides the Presidencies. Mayo Hospital was built at Lahore and so was King Edward Medical College, Lahore in 1860.   This was the only medical institution in this part of sub-continent. 

EDUCATION

The East India Company as a commercial institution had no concern with education. When it became an administrative body it recognized, though slowly, that it was the duty of an Oriental ruler to patronize learning, and it was in partial fulfillment of that duty that Hastings founded a Madrasa of Islamic studies at Calcutta in 1781, that Jonathan Duncan founded the Sanskrit College at Benares in 1792, and that Company for many years continued to pay stipends to learned pandits and maulvis.   From about 1811 Lord Minto, as Governor General, and an evangelical group led by Wilberforce in England and began to press for English education in India.    Lord Macaulay was appointed president of the committee in 1834 and in his famous educational minute of February 1835 declared himself an Anglicist. Lord William Bentink the then Governor General took the same view, and in a resolution of March 1835 decided that the object of the British Government should be the promotion of English literature and science. From that time higher education in India became available and has since always remained, education in western knowledge of all kinds, while the old oriental learning has for the most part sunk to the position of an optional subject in university curricula. 

(Social Service in India by Sir Edward blunt (1938) York House, Kinways, London P-184 and 246).

Thus under the British system, the sense of education started in the Punjab, compelling the British Government to start education institutions like Aitchison College and Government College, Lahore. Through this gift, only the resourceful persons like big Zimeindars were given admission, still the target of achieving education in Punjab was achieved earlier, compared to the other Provinces. This benefit of education to improve the quality of the youth of this Country was bestowed by the God Almighty. So that gave Punjab a lead in education health, understanding and they learnt the art of existence and their basic needs. The people of Punjab thus were capable of attaining prosperity and their quality of life was improved by dint of their hardwork and this quality may not be exploited by the weak or by those who could work hard.   The people of Punjab have been asserting their existence for over a century.   Let the people of other provinces also determine to succeed in achieving those noble objectives which people have acquired in Punjab through their energy and speed.

Punjab University (1882) was the only University at Lahore.   First it was Lahore University (1861) made by Assistant Governor Montgomery and Mecleod Ronald made it Punjab University. There was no university in NWFP- Sindh or Baluchistan before 11947. Lahore (Punjab) was centre of education, culture and civilization.   Pakistan came into being on the world globe on 14th August, 1947. It started growing in education. Khan Abdul Qayum Khan initiated the establishment of Peshawar University in 1950, which was inaugurated by Khan Liaqat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Now each Province has got University, educational institutions and research centres. There were two colleges at Peshawar, Islamia College (1913) made by Sahibzada Abdul Qayum Khan and Edwards College made by British, similar situation was in East Pakistan there was only one University at Dacca (1913). 

 We also express our thanks to Almighty Allah who is the sustainer of the universe that we have been given a homeland and we have made a lot of progress.   For example there are many universities, medical institutions, educational institutions, research centres in the Province of NWFP, in the Province of Baluchistan and Sindh. There is need that we should get rid of imperialists and jagirdars who have made the smaller provinces backward and have been using their private prisons for the people of those areas. One should not fight for false matters, one should fight only for justifiable causes. The Pakistan is single unit democratically governed. It provides freedom and equality to all men and women in the country. We should not be exploited by the slogan. We are one nation and let me quote the Quaid in this regard – July, 1942: -

          We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws add moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of International Law we are a nation. (Interview to American Press – Representatives – July, 1942).

 
IDEA OF PAKISTAN

The Idea of Pakistan was put forwarded by a Punjabi Allama Sir Dr. Muhammad Iqbal who addressed the Allahabad Session of the All India Muslim League in 1930, the most important message, which he conveyed was, the need for the full and free home development (of Indian Muslims) on the lines of their own culture and tradition in their own Indian homeland.   It was with this end, in view that he supported the demand of the All Parties Muslim Conference for the creation of a Muslim India within India and put forward his own proposal for the formation of a consolidated North West Indian Muslim State. Chaudhry Rehmat Ali, who arrived in England for higher education at Cambridge in 1930, the year when the first session of the Round Table Conference began. He watched with great concern the willingness of the Muslim delegates at this Conference and the succeeding sessions to accept the scheme of the Indian Muslim should had a separate nationality.    He said :our religion, culture, history, tradition, economic system, laws of inheritance, succession and marriage are basically and fundamentally different from those of the people living in the rest of India.   Whereas Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was with Congress for undivided India. Out of a total of 1585 seats in all the eleven provincial Assemblies, Congress won only 716 seats (about 45% and out of the 482 Muslim reserved seats League secured as few as 26, of which 15 were in the very small North-West Frontier Province, where it had been aligned for a long time with the conservative Muslim party, the Khudai Khidmatgars, led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. The Congress Govt. could not win the will of the Muslims during 1937-1939. Quaid observed 22nd Dec. 1939 as thanks giving day. Lahore Resolution 23rd March, 1940, which was adapted on 24th March, 1940. Lahore Resolution was, the only for the Indian Muslims could save themselves from the strangle hold of a Hindu majority government, and could secure their future life in line with their own aspirations and ideals, spiritual, cultural, economic, so social and political. 

Indeed, all the British Leaders were opposed to the demand for Pakistan. Neither Linlithgow, Zetland, nor Wavell, Amery, Attlee or Mountbatten supported the demand.   Therefore, overall popularity and contribution of Punjab should not be exploited.   These should be no conflict. Let every Pakistani study history, the conditions, under which Pakistan was born. Have not Sindh, NWFP, Baluchistan progressed in education, health and other matters? Have we not increased our Resources? Indeed we had advances in knowledge – science and technology. We have approach to global economic market. Our performances are well in depth.

Punjab’s population is larger than that of any other province of Pakistan. The educational institutions were established in a large number before independence.   Therefore the people of Punjab amazingly advanced themselves in education, and other discipline of life. Punjab has played a great role during independence, and it has got a major share in defence against the enemies.

WHO RULED?

The first Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army was from (Hazara) the remotest corner of NWFP. He was General Muhammad Ayub Khan, later became martial law Administrator and President. Field Martial Ayub Khan ruled Pakistan for nearly 11 years and he handed over power to another Army Chief, who was again from NWFP General Yayah Khan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttoo from Sindh was first civilian Martial Law Administrator, President and Prime Minister. General Zia ul Haq took over in 1977 as Martial Law Administrator having domicile of NWFP. After death of General Zia ul Haq, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Chairman, Senate from NWFP became President. This is perhaps twice in history of Pakistan that Ch. Fazal Elahi during the tenure of Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttoo and during tenure of Benazir Bhuttoo Sardar Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari from Punjab were made and later on Justice (R) Muhammad Rafique Tarrar Senator became President of Pakistan during the tenure of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. Punjab still continues to be a source of intellectuals, educationists and planners. Being its population it had played its role it has not deprived any Province of its rights. Instead, it has provided modern education, liberation for men and women and bulk of technical people in agriculture, medicine and dams engineers. It is unfortunate that some people present Punjab in a bad light, though Punjab was responsible for strengthening the economy and for developing the nation.    The concept of nationalists is dangerous. The example of Yugozlavia is before us. The futility of nationalism in its chauvnist, irridentist and revanchist forms was most obvious in strife-torn Yugoslavia in the critical moment of its breakup. Tito jammed inter-ethnic nationalism by using techniques of repressive tolerance and focused on inter-class contradictions rather than, inter-ethnic atagonism. (Dawn 28.10.98).

Let me quote LAPPS 35000 who live in northern part of Europe, where it is very cold. The lapps live in lapland in the far north of Europe, Lapland concentrate with parts of Norway, Sweeden, Finland and Russia.   They have a special living. They mostly travel in search of Food alongwith reindeer; the animals they keep but lapland is not independent country, but concerts of the far north of scandinaria and Russia’s Kola Porinsula - No body ever asked for separate country – Province or State.

So custom, culture and language is not base for a name. The wandering herdsmen of Khagan are more in various places in search of Food alongwith their livestock. The nomad mostly raise sheep, including goats, cattle and horses.

So the opposition for Punjab is not healthy motive. Let smaller Provinces work hard. Let the children be assured education and progress will grow. 

The challenges facing Pakistan in economy, security and stability these can only be met through national unity and concept of one Nation. Unfortunately, the leadership of various Provinces are destroying the concept of national unity.   There is national assembly and parliamentarians are elected in accordance with the constitution of 1973. The parliament is a representative forum representing the national interest and the Parliament can decide, the fate of the country. Indian threats continue, despite the testing of our nuclear bomb at Chaghi on 28th and 30th May, 1998. These threats are based on the assumption that Pakistani nation is divided. Therefore we should show that we are able to face the external challenges or the conflict.   We, as a Nation should show, the unity of our policies in economics decision and security that we can defend our mother land. 

Language should not be criteria for naming a Province or unit of Federation of Pakistan. Globally people have been speaking different languages for thousands of years; but country name is different from language.   The language that they speak depend upon where they live. These are about 3000 to 5000 languages spoken around the world and those areas and countries are not named after language, people have started writing about 5000 years ago, but the name of the country is different from the name of language or writing. Therefore, this is not argument that we should name any area of Pakistan on the basis of language alone.

 

The Punjab weather is different as compared to rest of units, therefore the clothing in Punjab is different to the clothes of coldest area of Pakistan. The clothing and custom of northern areas and some areas of Baluchistan are in different to Punjab, thus the custom develop the tradition like food and shelter has affected the life of rest of areas.   Clothing style might have influence the community of Punjab and thus their appearance has become different which shows some advancement and inclination towards modernization.    

Living standard, cloth around, diet and life has created some heart burning among other provinces, that Punjab possess more richness. The customs in all the provinces is different and is based upon the geographical position, climate and tradition. 

Our country is based upon ideology i.e. we are Muslims and Pakistan is over homeland for us and we are one nation, each area can make progress if the people desire so.    The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in his last message delivered through the verses of Holy Quraan, gave practical shape by establishing a welfare state in the world, where every human being is equal. He declared from house-top every man irrespective of colour, creed, race and geographical areas is entitled for equality before the State. Exploitations of all kinds were prohibited.   Accumulation of wealth to few hands was made toboo.   Whereas distribution of wealth was made equitable. In fact, merit and good conduct were made the basis of superiority of one man over another man.   Males and females were put at equal par.  

 

Similarly 80 millions peoples of Muslim Sub-continent struggled for separate homeland under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-azam and All India Muslim League. The purpose was the same, to achieve a homeland where the justice may be provided equally to all men and women. So, we have crossed 50 years as a nation this half century of our land existed as sovereign State.   So we are a nation now, and Pakistan is our country. We should work above to ourselves in order to benefit to the nation.   We can achieve everything by dint of hard work, honesty and other qualities mentioned in Quraan and Sunnah. There is a need for a unity among the people of Pakistan, among all the Province of Pakistan, so that exploitation of external forces may not weaken our beloved country. We should consider all factors mentioned above that Punjab has not done any injustice to any province; but the natural resources, manpower, technology and the other geo-political circumstances as a gift of God is bestowed upon people of Punjab which is a province of Pakistan.

 


 
 
STATEMENT
KASHMIR IS THE PART OF PAKISTAN
 

Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi former Kashmir fighter in 1948 has criticized the statement issued by the foreign office spokes person Mrs. Tasneem Aslam that Pakistan never claim Kashmir is integral part of Pakistan. He said Kashmir is vital issue on basis of 3rd June Partition Plan of India that Muslim majority areas will become under constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the Hindu majority areas will constitute under the constituent Assembly of Bharat. While rest of Indian states about 585 has got the freedom to join India or Pakistan or can remain independent. The leader of the Muslims of sub-continent Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah issued statement to Indian channel on 11 July 1947, he warned Hindu Maharaja to see the accession of Kashmir should be according to the wishes and majority of population of Muslims. Kashmir according to geographical situation and 80% muslim majority areas become constitutional part of constituent Assembly of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam also deplores the arrest of 6 Kashmiri leaders on this issue. On knowing the entry of Indian forces into Kashmir the First Governor General of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah ordered General Gracy to send two Brigade army one in Srinagar and one in Baramula. If the Kashmir was not integral part of Pakistan, why Quaid was ordered to send force. Kashmir issue was taken in UNO by Pandat Jawahir Lal Nehro and UNO decided and asked Bharat for plebiscite, so far Bharat never agreed. Mujahideen got freedom in part of Azad Kashmir and rest of Kashmir needs to go for fair plebiscite. So statement of foreign spokes person has injured the feeling of many fighters of Kashmir and muslim leaders because Pakistan was obtained on muslim majority areas. 

 
 


 

KALABAGH DAM IS NOT THREAT TO FEDERATION

 

I do reject the statement of Ghulam Ahmed Bilor Vice President of Awami National Party who said the construction of Kalabagh Dam is threat to Federation and it should not be constructed. He further said that Punjab Province has got more rights from water of Indus River and Kabal River. This is against the Federation.  

 

Kalabagh Dam is necessity of the Federation because almost all Rivers of Pakistan for irrigation of lands and production of electricity. Prior to partition Punjab irrigation was on 5 Rivers and after the Indus Basen Pact 17 Sept 1960 between Jawahir Lal Nehru Prime Minister India and Field Martial Muhammad Ayub Khan President of Pakistan, 3 rivers, were given to East Punjab (India) and 2 rivers (Jhelum & Chenab) left for Punjab and 20% water for Ravi, Bias & Satluj was given from river Indus to India and 80% water is to be used by Pakistan. Therefore, all rivers belong to Pakistan and Pakistan is Federation and is being governed by the elected representatives in the National Assembly at present. 

 

It was Pakistan Movement two nation theory and struggle of muslims of the sub-continent under the banner of All India Muslim League and leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, that they got the partition of India on 3rd June declaration 1947. Muslim nation was given independent Constituent Assembly comprising of all the Provinces of Pakistan therefore any demarcation of river for one province to another province is against the concept of Pakistan Ideology. Pakistan is one nation and whole of Pakistan is the responsibility of the Federal Government, therefore the construction of Kalabagh Dam is the need of the day and it was need in 1948 when Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his Cabinet has decided to have Mianwali Hydel Power Project in West Pakistan and Karnafully Power Project in East Pakistan for the production of electricity for the need of country. Country needs water, country needs water reservoir and during the Monsoon 38.1 MAF goes to the Arabic Sea and with construction of Kalabagh Dam at Mianwali can be controlled this wastage, Dam will store water during rain and it will help the irrigation of Sind, Punjab and Baluchistan.   Technically there is no threat for the NWFP because the former Chairman Wapda Engineer Shamsul Mulk who belongs to District Nowshera and other former other chairman from same district has expressed greatest need of the construction of Kalabagh Dam and both had attempted to convince National Awami Party Leader as there is no threat either to Nowshera or Mardan. . Even Shamsul Mulk has given statement that if Kalabagh Dam was not constructed, the country shall face famine and people shall die. I may add construction of Tirbela Dam has not damaged any part of NWFP.   So the construction of Kalabagh Dam and others are essential for the prosperity of the country. I, therefore, request the Awami National Party that they should consider national aspect not the provincial aspect and should compromise to solidarity of Pakistan. The 1973 Constitution has been signed by National Awami Party leadership. All land belongs to Pakistan and we all are Pakistani and one nation.

 


 
WHY PAKHTOON KHAW?

By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi

In General Election on 8th Feb 2008, people casted their votes. Two major parties, Pakistan Peoples Party and Pakistan Muslim League (N) and in the Frontier the Awami National Party have taken the majority. Therefore, there is coalition government in the Federal set up as well as in the Provinces of Punjab and NWFP. The Major Party Co-Chairperson Mr. Asif Ali Zardari is leaning towards Pakhtoon Khaw instead of NWFP, a fact mentioned in the constitutional package. Now Awami National Party in NWFP has started campaign for renaming the name of NWFP to Pakhtoon Khaw. Similarly in 1988 after the general election ANP got 13 members elected out of the 72 members of NWFP Assembly and initiated a campaign to rename the Province. Similarly in election of 1990 ANP had got 23 out of 83 seats of Assembly and it was the alliance government of PML (N) and resolution was put forwarded in the Provincial Assembly on 20th Nov 1990 but the 58% votes were against the resolution only 28 members i.e 34% favoured the resolution. 8% members did not taken part in the voting.

Pakhtoon Khaw name was also moved again on 13 Nov 1997 and it could not go through. Pakhtoon name is ethnic and regional based on language and cast and such name indicates that all the inhabitants of NWFP are “Pashtoon” and Pashtoo speaking, whereas it is wrong 34% of population of different districts speaks Hindko and many districts have got different language, culture and inhabitancy and other social inheritance. The city of Peshawar is very famous place where the invaders from all side walked through Khyber Pass and the main communities of Peshawar City speak Hindko, some of the families speak Persian and have a different life style. The city of Kohat, D. I. Khan and whole of the district Hazara are the Hindko speaking areas. Thus Hindko the second spoken largest language of NWFP, whereas the Chitral areas has got own language. Its population is more than 50,000 with the language of Khowar and other valleys of Indus, Kohistan, Chitral including Gilgit the population is more than 2 lakh and their language is Sheenan. Kohistan District speaks Kohistani and Chitral speak other language like Palola and other Kalasha. So there are languages and languages and it shall be great injustice for the people of other then who speak Pashto and it is against human rights. Pashtoo speaking party becomes the majority in the Assembly which shall prefer to introduce Pashto as official language in the teaching institutions and in the government official work. It shall create difficulties for the children of non-pashto areas. Over and above Pashto inhabitants Pakhtoon feel superiority in their mind that they are superior to others so there shall be confusion and it will create more problem instead of developments of the province of multinational people.

Interesting, the Finance Department NWFP has been estimated that the change of name will cost not less then Rs. 700 millions and government of NWFP spent huge amount for changing of the name in the offices. So there shall be social disparity and economic loss and many other expenditure will occur. There is need Pakhtoon should have the identity as Pakhtoon nation of pride and they are true muslim and they have got high type of culture and hospitality but this Pakhtonn Khaw name will create fear and uncertainty among immigrants and among the non pakhtoon areas and they shall be under the pressure for their social and cultural loss, it could create substantial psychological damage to the population. So what is the need of this time, is people should be given security, there should be law and order , there should be justice for every citizen and there should be liberty to practice culture and religion. The idea of the ethnic name is against the ideology of Pakistan because Pakistan was achieved on the basis of Muslim nation and all members of the nation black or white in each corner of Pakistan are equal citizen of Pakistan. The purpose of creation of Pakistan was to show the tolerance and freedom are every community. Coming back to historical background, the English Empire captured this area at that time Punjab, from Sikh dynasty 1848, and this area was part of Punjab up to Kandhar when the British have to organize the administration and they had sustained the domestic culture and religious affairs of the community and thus for purpose of administration then Viceroy of India Lord Curson has taken away 6 backward districts of then Punjab Mardan, Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Banu and DI Khan and named this area on geographical bases of location of 6 districts in the North West of India. The Sikh government had created Kila at Jamrood in 1837 to check the incoming to their land. So on the basis of security and administration Lord Curson named this area as NWFP. British government introduced 1929 Reforms and election were conducted in 1937 under the Act of 1935. Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan founder of Islamia College Peshawar without party position was elected as a Chief Minister NWFP but the congress leader the brother of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Dr. Khan Sahib put forward vote of no confidence against Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan and he became Chief Minister NWFP and he run the government upto 1943 again thereafter these leaders have been claimed that Pashtoon should be recognized. Even this name was given to them by their beneficiar Olaf Caro the then Governor of NWFP. He persuaded this Khan tribe to advent Pakhtoonisan. Similarly wrote a letter to the Viceroy of India from Parachinar on 29th May 1947. Letter is reproduced:

These Pakhtoon leaders responses this classical name of Olaf Caro and have acted as agent in propagating status of Pakhtoon. They have got many conventual’s heritage cohesiveness, this is sufficient for any kind of tribes that the people are known for their bravery and enhancing of the democracy therefore there is need there should have harmony among the ethnic tribe or residents and restore their modalities in a stronger way instead of depressing the people.

There are many challenges faced by the Central and Provincial Governments. Each party have to incorporate the wishes of other people in order to restore law and order, there is need to provide energy, light, water, food, security to the people. There is challenge to provide the security to the people of Pakistan and we have got extremely fear of attack from other sides and we have to be alert for external security and to protect the people and to make development in transport in roads and government have to part the knowledge to the men and women in each corner of the Province and this should be done for building the nation and there shall be recognition of Pakhtoon. There is need that we have to bleach the society from corruption, injustice of different shapes.

Let us follow the Quaid-e-Azam who said that we all are Pakistani, Neither Balochi, nor Pathan, nor Sindhi and nor Punjabi we should feel pride to be a Pakistani only Pakistani and Pakistani we should take any action but we should not spoil the nation. He also said whatever action taken, personal, local or it should be for the welfare of people of Pakistan. He said on 15 June 1947 we all are Pakistani and all are a nation we are muslim believe one God and day of Last, The Quraan and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Therefore, our motto our thinking should be true Pakistan nothing else so if need the change the name then I suggest geographically name Ghandhara. Secondly Khyber Khaw, Aman Khaw, Islamian Province it may be mentioned that the province of Punjab was not known on the basis of language this is on the basis of 5 rivers of Punjab and Sindh is also named after the name of river Indus and it shall be surprising that India name was Subta Sind land of 7 rivers when the Arab walk into Subta Sind they could not pronounce Sind because it was difficult for them to pronounce Sind but they used Hind and it become Hindu and India.

All provinces are named geographically, there is no clue of this name Pakhtoon Khaw in history. It is just like a story letter and people started canvassing – Pakhtoon Khaw name will not build heaven and it will not give rain of Man o Salva. This is against all principles of diplomacy and democracy. Our country Pakistan has got many issues, one of them is development in all matters. We need to develop education, economic and Defence. It is fault way to over come the other nation, who don’t speak Pashto. Let us think, how we can make progress with aim of such development, must be the betterment of the common man.

 


 

CHANGE THE FATE OF NWFP INSTEAD OF NAME

The ruling Awami National Party and its leadership could not provide any useful or social service to Province of NWFP since it has captured the votes in 2008. The people need bread, comfort, education, peace and justice and the government could consider providing book, ink and pen to each student of the province. Most of teaching institution look teachers, there is shortage of staff and other basic facilities in the province and Party after change of name of Province which was given in 1901 by the Lord Curson Viceroy of India.

The primary level school stands 27,000 in the province. Khush Dil Khan, Law Minister admitted in NWFP Assembly i.e. there is shortage of teachers in public sector. Thee are about 19 schools functioning without headmasters or principals in Peshawar PF-10, what could be position of rest of High Schools in the Province. It was discussed in Assembly that 400 posts of different grades are lying vacant, 186 schools and conditions of the girls schools were in bad shape. The Government of NWFP should have managed to upgrade the schools, colleges and should have appointed committee comprising of professors who could have selected good teachers. This could be an achievement of the Province. There should be enthusiasm for promoting education and social status of the people. The government of ANP does not consider that people are strength, one could astonish on the ability and thinking of leaders, they are ardent being admirer of change of name. 

Over and above Frontier Province teachers protested for departmental promotion but government policies are different. Teachers protested on 5th Oct. 2009 in Peshawar and staged warning to close schools in the province if the government of NWFP did not accept their demands. Similar protest were carried out in Swat and Mardan district and Lower Dir, Nowshera, Butt Khela, and other districts.

There are worst condition of the Hospitals, funds are not available, doctors at most places are not present. Social sector is neglected. The government could not provide propose rehabilitation to the sufferer of earth quack of 2005. Perhaps, the ANP Government does not consider people of Hazara and Kashmir part of a nation. We all are muslim according to any definition of a nation all the people living in territory of Pakistan and NWFP – one nation Pakistan is home land of everybody, the people of NWFP want peace, harmony, good living as a Pakistani, not as a separate tribe of Pakhtoon. The people of NWFP rest of all districts opposes this cultural linguistic name, therefore government should work for promotion of economy, social life. Let me quote past when Govt of NWFP was run by their leader Dr. Khan Congress Party 1937-43 and from 1945-47, The Congress and Redshirt Government has not made any college in any district of NWFP, there were only tow colleges at Peshawar, Edward college was built by British and Islamia College by Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum. Let this government take positive steps. Question arises, why the government is after the change of name of NWFP to Pakhtoon Khaw. Accordingly these Congress Party leaders were instituted by British Governor of NWFP Olef Caroe. How this Pakhtoonistan Idea came, it was Olef Caroe who wrote secret letter to Viceroy of India and it is reproduced below. Olef Caroe has written a very comprehensive book The Pathan.  

 

Sir O. Caroe (North-West Frontier Province) to Sir J. Colville

L/P&J/5/224: f 45

 

Confidential                                                              GOVERNOR’S CAMP, PARACHINAR,

No. GH-58                                                                                                                22 May 1947

 
 

The interesting local development in the political field is that my Ministry and Abdul Ghaffar Khan have started propaganda on a theme which I advised them to take up some months ago: that of a Pathan national province under a coalition if possible, and making its own alliances as may suit it. When I put it to them then they professed what amounted to fury at the mere suggestion. There is a good deal in the theme itself, and the appeal is a far more constructive one than tat of Islam in danger. The switch-over has probably come too late, but to my mind it is a strength, and not a weakness, that Pathanistan cannot subsist financially or otherwise on its own legs. The weakness is that the Pathans have hitherto been too divided among themselves to setup a stable State, and where they have ruled they have ruled as conquerors of alien populations. They themselves had always been in a state of hardy right through history until we came and put them in order. (Afghantistan is not really a Pathan State at all). So Pakistan was given by British Governor and this was conspiracy to create disturbance in this Province in order to join Bharat. The name could be Khyber Khaw, Kohistan Khaw.

Name should be produced by caring for needy by sharing with needy, by doing job. We as a Pakistani want Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah national prospective, which should promote the destiny of nation, our policy should be to remove difficulties of the people and save the people. Government of NWFP should live up to the hope of people if this is achieved, everything is achieved.

 


 

RENAMING NWFP

By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi
 

Ref: Saturday Feb 22, 2003 DAWN Editorial Re-Naming the NWFP) in which the decision of the Chief Minister, Akram Khan Durani, MMA to set up a committee for giving a new name to the Province, and prior to this District Council Peshawar, has decided for re-naming. Previously it was political slogan of ANP to re-name the NWFP– Pakhtoon Khaw.

 

Majority of the Districts of NWFP are not in favour of this name, because this pertains to caste and language and this slogan of “Phakhtoon Khaw” or Pakhtonistan was put forwarded by Ghaffar Khan, Red Shirt Leader, and Dr. Khan Chief Minister, NWFP after boycotting the historical Referendum from 12 –17July 1947 at instigation of Mr. Alaf Caro the then Governor NWFP who has written a secret letter from Para Chinnar to Viceroy of India that he has convinced Khan Brothers for demanding Pakhtoonistan. Prior to this there was no slogan for change of the name of NWFP. 

 

It may be added that Phakhtoon Khaw means neibour of the Pakhtoon and there is Pakhtoon Belt in Afghanistan adjoining the NWFP and Baluchistan. The people who were not in favour of Pakistan they wanted to have this belt to be named after the tribe of Pakhtoon - Pakhtoonistan. The Afghanistan Rulers in the beginning had the bad feelings for creation of Pakistan and the King Zahir Shah was the Ruler and it was the only country Afghanistan, that voted against Pakistan Membership in the United Nation and Kabul Embassy of U. K., France are very much allergic to Pakistan. So this name Pakhtoon Khaw is based upon the old melody against Pakistan. If the Khan Brothers were sincere for changing the name of the Province, they could easily do it, when they were holding the Chief Ministership, it may be remembered that Dr. Khan Sahib (Abdul Jabbar Khan) brother of Abdul Ghaffar Khan was the Chief Minister of NWFP from 1937 to 1947 and during those days nobody bother about the change of name, when they have the power to do so and even when Dr. Khan became the Chief Minister West Pakistan with the new political structure he at that time could amend the constitution and could have changed the name of the Province.  

 

If we trace the history of the NWFP and the early years of this region was part of the Punjab and these districts were under the administration of Punjab and was considered the backward. The administration of this region became important when the British Empire took over the Punjab 1848. The Punjab was the largest province.   And from 1897 the Lt. General was the incharge and he wanted administration of this region for better results, in 1901, Lord Curson scheme for the creation of the North West Frontier Province as a separate administration under a Chief Commissioner only selected by the Governor General was introduced. The geographical outline of the new province were out stretched to their 5 settled district of side of Indus, Hazara, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and D. I. Khan lying in the form while the thumb and four fingers stretched out to occupy and close against aggression (from the 5 gateway of MalaKand, (Chitral), Khyber, Khurrum, Toochi and Gomal. Similarly the tribal areas lying between the fingers were also included and thus the construction of roads and railway was under taken to ensure regular troops of Peshawar division and Frontier Brigade could be rapidly move to any certain point. So this was the need of the administration of that time the British Empire wanted to establish the Army Military Police etc. and thus the Frontier Constabulary was formed. It was also to ensure the international Durand line and thus the Frontier Province was named on such account. The Pashto is spoken in few district and across the border. After creation of Pakistan each person of tribal territory and frontier can speak urdu and thus the Pashto is not the only language of the NWFP over 52 % of the population is non – Pakhtoon thus the name after the language is not according to the concept of Pakistan theory a separate home land for Muslims. This area is very important politically and geographically because the Russian since 1925, conspired to run over Afghanistan and they conscripted a misfit army from ethnic. Spreading over old central Asian and together them in Termis to Swoop over Kabul. After so much struggle of the Russia killing and murdering Taliban came in 1995 and now later on Bombardment by USA.

 

In the circumstances explained above I could not agree to renaming of NWFP as Pakhtoon Khaw. I want to remove the mis-concept that the name of the Province of the Punjab is not on the basis of the language neither of the Sindh. Name of the Punjab stands for land of 5 rivers. Whereas name of Sindh is after the river Sindh, and the name of Baluchistan is on Geographic, whereas Baluchistan has got many tribal of Phatan, Hazara and other castes.

 

Moreover the name of the NWFP was not fixed by Punjab or by the Pakistan Government it was named NWFP by British Empire.   In my letter dated 23 Jan. 1988 DAWN where I mentioned there is no justification for the change of the name Pakhtoon Khaw. Similarly the Nawa e Waqt daily 15 Nov. 1997 has also criticised the change of the name and editorial mentioned the compromising of the position at the national level.   The new name Pakhtoon Khaw will create resentment among the people of Hazara, D.I. Khan, Peshwar City, Kohat. Over and above change of name shall not help the prosperity of the NWFP. Major need is the prosperity, economical growth and politically strength. Since the century have passed of this name NWFP and it was an established province of the Federal System of Governess under constitution 1973. The nature of the province, geographic position, production, trade, culture, region is entirely a specific and the people are responsible to act according to their faith. During this century this question was not raised and this issue has been shaped very recently by creating political social, economic unrest. This Province is a part of federation, the change of name on the linguistic basis is equal to wagging war against the established independent country Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which was created by efforts and will of the people of this area.   There is almost adoption and the sovereignty of the State, is fully utilized in the Senate and National Assembly. So if the government feels that change of name will provide the more power, more grain will grow then the name should be reflect the natural geographical at name of the river or the mountain or the pass. So the new name should Province of Khyber Pass, Gandhara, Islamian. If we would named Islamabad why we could not name Province of Islamian. Therefore, I oppose the name suggested Pakhtoon Khaw and I have written the book on this issue.

 

Recalling the history of Pakhtoonistan I have mentioned the meeting at Bannu held on 21 June 1947 under the Chairmanship of Khan Amir Muhammad Khan President of Frontier Provincial Congress Committee, the Congress Parliamentary Party, Khudai Khidmatgar and Zalmy Pakhtoon, unanimously resolved that free Pathan state of all Pakhtoon be established. The constitution of the state will be framed on the basis of Islam conception of democracy, equality and social justice. This meeting appeals to all the Pathan to unit for attainment of this cherish goal and not to submit any non-pakhtoon domination. So this is whole story that Khan Brothers never wanted to be attached with Pakistan and thus with his will Khudai Khidmat Gar leader was buried in Kabul in accordance to his will. 

 

So the historical name after the Khyber Pass will create bondage of age the march of time to our history and Quaid-e-Azam glorious drive to Khyber Pass to historical area after the establishment of Pakistan so the Khyber Province will have significance of history and Muslim culture. 


KHYBER PAKHTOON KHAW PROVINCE (KPK)

 

                                                                                                            By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi

The Awami National Party, after 18th Amendment from National Assembly, got the change of name of Northern Western Frontier Province to Khyber Pakhtoon Khaw (KPK). This new name was challenged by the people of Hazara, because this name stands against two nation theory and concept of Pakistan. The former NWFP affiliated with some parts of Afghanistan were being ruled by Maharaja Ranjeet Singh and Sikh dynasty governed this area for about 29 years, which was part of Province Punjab.

The British Empire took over the Province Punjab from the Sikh in 1848 till 1901. NWFP comprising of 6 Districts were part of Punjab. After British took over, thus the Government of British for administration purpose, detached these 6 Districts from Punjab and combined the Tribal Territory. Lord Curson, Viceroy of India give geographical name NWFP as this area was located geographically on the North West of India. Prior to this, Province of Punjab is named after 5 Rivers, Sindh Province is after name of River Sindh and Baluchistan is being named after Dara Bolan. No resentment from Khans of Charsada or Ashat Nagar Abdul Ghaffar Khan. The British Government introduced Act 1935 and according to this Act Elections were conducted in 1937. Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan was elected first Chief Minister of NWFP. After six months, he was replaced by Ghaffar Khan’s brother of Dr. Khan through vote of no confidence against Qayyum Khan and he governed the Province NWFP from 1937 to 1943 as Chief Minister and never thought about the change of any name of Province. Again Dr. Khan was elected Chief Minister 1945-47 neither Ghaffar Khan nor any other Khan objected the name of NWFP. In election of 1946 the Nationalist Muslim Leaders (Congress) got 21 seats whereas the All India Muslim League obtained 17 seats and 12 seats of minorities, total seats of NWFP were 50. These Khans of Charsada, Redshirt leader Ghaffar Khan follower of Gandhi got votes in favour of Congress and wanted to join Bharat. People of Hazara were against the government of Dr. Khan and Pandat Jawahir Lal Nehro who was acting domain premier in 1946 and Lord Mountbatton Viceroy of Bharat visited the NWFP and observed that people of Hazara and NWFP are against the Congress Government of NWFP and are protested then he decided referendum so referendum was held on 12-17 July, 1947 in NWFP and people cast their votes in favour of Pakistan. Pakhtoon of Ashat Nagar had always guarage against the people of Hazara. Even during my Islamia College Peshawar days, students of Hazara were considered Punjabian. We were hated and Pakhtoon were considered themselves superior nation. The same hatterness prevails and people of Hazara had not accepted linguistic name. The resented and were fired by Police of NWFP and many were murdered and many were injured on 12th April, 2010.

With new budget Mr. Ameer Haider Hoti Chief Minister got 50% of the funds as discretionary power. The development programme shall be according to his choice and finances will spend on his desire. Now the funds will be spent on the choice of Chief Minister in the name of Ghaffar Khan and Wali Khan and rest of the divisions of Province will suffer. Apart from direct discretionary development funds, the Chief Minister is also authorized to divert funds from the Tamir-i-Sarhad Programme allocated to MPAs to any development project in the Province. Likewise, 10 % funds of the District ADP allocated in the provincial budget are also spent on Chief Minister’s directives at Local level development schemes. Moreover, scores of umbrella schemes reflected in each and every sector of the ADP were also executed with approval of the Chief Minister, virtually putting resources worth billions at his disposal. Chief Minister has also financial leverage to announce schemes during his visits to different places of NWFP. Hazara Division prgramme will be retarded.

So the first budget of Province is the budget of discretionary power and Chief Minister can spend the money in the name of Ghaffar Khan. This was the reason that during the budget session the law makers of former NWFP were not interested. Budget session was started with delay of one hour and quorum was not complete and it was adjourned as much of MPAs left the house before starting of budget session. It is interesting that out of 120 law makers only 29 members were present. 

So after the change of name of NWFP there is no change in the mind of ruling people. The law and order position in the Province has not changed poverty, in security and corruption. 

 
 


 
 
MADAR-E-MILLAT MOHTARMA FATIMA JINNAH - 

UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES – MEDICAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

 
 By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi
 

The University of Health Sciences, has been established at a very attractive area of Lahore in front of New Campus Punjab University. It is housed in a very befitting newly constructed building at the campus of Sheikh Zayed Hospital.   It was approved by the Planning & Development Department at a cost of Rs.198.420 million and at the same time Provincial Development Working Party (PDWP) provided 50 million as one time grant from the Annual Development Programme 2002-03 and later on this University is to carry out on self financing system. It was decided in the beginning all the medical colleges in the Province will be affiliated with the University at private and public sector level and 3 new colleges will be set up one at Services Hospital, Sheikh Zayed Hospital and other. The creation of this University to keep the pace of growth of medical sciences and profession with the line of the world training and teaching manpower with better dimension and wisdom.    The University staff is working very hard in order to improve the medical profession, teaching capacity and literacy of the medical programme in accordance with the world standard. The University has got further intention to change the basic sciences curriculum and to promote skill programme for the postgraduate and other health allied subjects. The University is under the supervision of a renowned surgeon having foreign qualifications Prof. Dr. Mahmood Ahmed Ch. former Minister for Health, Information Technology and Tourism, Government of the Punjab. Dr. Mahmood Ahmed Ch. is working to correct and strengthen the medical profession in order to make it strong. There were many criticisms about Dr. Mahmood Ahmed Ch. when he was Minister for Health on his policies. His indicators for changes in the profession were very much criticized but he was determined to establish the University of Health Sciences at Lahore. He accepted the challenges for creation of this University for the nation and for the world. Thus, due to his efforts, the President Islamic Republic of Pakistan General Pervez Musharaf has inaugurated the University and has supported the idea.   The President of Pakistan has also agreed to be patron of the new University. Now the University is working on the proposed changes in the curriculum and an upgrading the standard of education. Prof. Dr. Mubashar Hassan a renowned psychiatrists and former Principal Rawalpindi Medical College has taken over the executive process of the University as a Vice Chancellor. Prof. Mubashar Hassan is dynamic and possesses new ideas to update the standard of curriculum and courses of the University. Prof. Mubashar is a full guarantee of the out come of the courses according to the need of country. Prof. Dr. Eis Muhammad former Principal Chief Executive of Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital has been appointed as Dean of medical sciences to create the new system/ change for all branches of the medicine, nurses, assistants, doctors and postgraduate scholar.      

 

Prof. Dr. Mahmood Ch. wants to ensure high quality of the education, reliability in the medical treatment, and he wants that art and science of diagnosis and surgical procedure may be streamlined for the Province of Punjab. All the individual are very much progressive, possess dynamism and there is hope that University will be of high standard to cater to the growing needs of medical education.

 

The University has a syndicate as well and the Chancellor of the University, the Governor of the Punjab has nominated the following as members of the Syndicate i.e. Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Ch, Vice Chancellor, Bahauddin Zakriya University, Multan Prof. Dr. Shabbir Ahmad Nasir, Principal Executive Officer, Nishtar Medical College, Multan, Prof. Dr. Shehnaz Aftab, Deputy Dean, Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi Prof. Dr. Asad Aslam Khan, Professor of Ophthalmology, KEMC Lahore Mr. Tariq Saeed Saigol, Chairman, Koh e Noor Maple Leaf Group, 42-Lawrence Road, Lahore Dr. Muhammad Tariq Siddiqui, former Vice Chancellor, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad Mr. Irshad Ahmed Haqani, Senior Editor, daily “Jang” Lahore Dr. S. Riaz ud Din, Director, Centre of Excellence for Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore. 

 

Similarly the Governor has nominated the following five persons as members of the Academic Council for a term of three years: -

 

1.            Prof. Dr. Naseer Mahmood Ahmad, Former Principal, KEMC, Lahore

2.            Prof. Dr. Jawad Sajid Khan, PEO/Dean, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore

3.            Mrs. Irshad Begum, Principal, Postgraduate Medical College of Nursing, Lahore

4.            Col. Dr. Mowaddat Hussain Rana, Head of Psychiatry Dept Combined Military Hospital

5.            Dr. Naveed Ahsan, ENT Specialist, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore

 

This University shall be of a high standard. The graduate of this University will not have to appear in any examination at Canada, Great Britain, Australia because it has direct links with the U. K. Universities. The examination system is being chalked out keeping in view the demands of strict security and transparency.   The University of Health Sciences, has got links with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council and College of Physician and Surgeons Pakistan in order to collaborate with the International Universities.   Dr. Mahmood told me, that it has been granted Rs. 8 crore and less than Rs. 2 crore has been spent on the pay and allowances of the teachers, staff and other structures. It is very fascinating to note that Dr. Mahmood is not drawing   his pay as Chairman Board of Governor and he has donated 40 years old costly wood to decorate and furnish the Syndicate conference room. His expression in social activities is very glorious. 

 

I have made efforts for creation of a Medical University in the past wrote to Air Martial Noor Khan, the then Health Minister and General Sawar Khan, the then Governor Punjab, but could not succeed. Later on I suggested the setting up of Fatima Jinnah Medical University at the campus of American Centre near Fatima Jinnah Medical College. 

 

Due to lack of trained medical manpower, the public cannot have access to health services.   According to U. N. O. Report Pakistan’s population access to health services is only 55% (1990-95) after Bangladesh (45%) and Cambodia (53%) India is (85%) Mongolia (95%) with South Korea and Singapore (100%). According to the same UN Report, Pakistan also has one of the lowest rate of births attended by skilled health staff, only (20%) of the total births in Pakistan (1995-2000) are attended by skilled health staff, after Nepal (12%) and Bangladesh (13%). The figure for India is (42%) Hong Kong and Singapore are (100%). Naturally, the infant mortality rate in Pakistan is one of the highest in the Asia Pacific region – 85 per 1,000 live births (2000) whereas it is 8 per 1,000 live births in Malaysia and 4 per 1,000 live births in Singapore.   Even Bangladesh’s infant mortality rate is 54 per 1,000 live births and India is 69 per 1,000 live births.    Indeed Pakistan’s expenditure on health has consistently been 0.7 % of GDP since 1999-2000. According to official figures, the expenditure on health in 1999-2000, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 was 0.7% of GDP. The figures before 1`999 were not any better: 0.8% in 1995-96, 0.5% in 1996-1997, 0.7 % in 1997-1998 and 0.9 % in 1998-1999. In contrast, most of the developed countries have been spending between 5% to 8 % of their GDP on health (World Bank 1999 report). As for the developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, most of them spend at least 1 % include the Philippines (0.4%).    As regard the public sector care in Pakistan there is lack of governance and people have lost the confidence in the government hospitals.   Quality of services is on the decline, therefore, the private sector is on the rise.

 

Now life style is different, road accidents, burns, shooting and other such emergencies are increasing day by day. There is need to develop such emergency centres both for the accidents and cardiac failure. Over and above infectious diseases, pollution is increasing day by day. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a new challenge and Hepatitis needs prevention through trained physicians, para-medical manpower. 

 

This is the reason that Pakistan lacks medical manpower as compared to the need of country. Lack of communication with the new style of information technology and electronic media, many children will suffer from eye diseases, about 80% could be affected and that can only be avoided by prevention alone. Therefore, if the University could produce competent manpower that will help the country. Similar institutions like College of Physician and Surgeons Pakistan, it was established with the efforts of General Burki and the college has got such standard that FCPS has become equivalent to MRCPS. The College is playing a very important role in training centres of 95 hospitals. Affiliation to the University is another very important issue. The PMDC and Punjab University mostly were not satisfied by the various teaching institutions at the private level and government level.   There were many private medical colleges who got the affiliation with Punjab University and thus the Punjab University in Oct 2001  has issued notices to 31 private medical institutions that the institutions located in the territorial jurisdiction of the Punjab University cannot be affiliated to new University so that the University of Health Science affiliation process will be examined by the new law and rules of the University. The University of Health Sciences is committed to excellence. 

 

The establishment of the University was order of the day because Karachi University was established under the Act of 1951. It has got several institutions, a research institute of chemistry which is recognized as a Centre of 3rd world Academy of Sciences. University of Karachi at present offers many subjects of science and arts.

 

The need of University is also very essential in the Province of Punjab because the number of seats in medical institutions working in Punjab is very low like: -

 

1.         Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore                  236

2.         Fatima Jinnah Medical College Lahore              230

3.         King Edward Medical College Lahore                 230

4.         Nishtar Medical College Multan                           230

5.         Rawalpindi Medical College Rawalpindi                        230

6.         Punjab Medical College Faisalabad                                230

7.         Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawalpur     230

                                                                                                1616
 

Due to shortfall of medical manpower in public institutions, out of thousand students only 1616 are admitted in the Punjab Province medical institutions and the remaining students automatically march to private institutions with very very high charges. So the need of the day is that University of Health Sciences may fulfill the requirement and enhance the medical manpower to oblige the public. 

 
Creation of Private Medical Colleges
 

Private Medical Colleges are emerging in most of the Provinces but many of them are not created properly with the territorial jurisdiction of University of that Province.    Many of the institutions have not been recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) after the inspection report.   Considering private medical institutions in Province of Punjab- Foundation Medical College, Rawalpindi was not recognized. Bhuta Medical College Faisalabad not recognized, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry recognized partly for one year. Islamabad Medical and Dental College not recognized, Shifa College of Medicine under consideration, Islamic International Medical College provisionally recognized, Independent Medical College Faisalabad not recognized and Lahore Medical and Dental College provisionally recognized.

 

The process of affiliation of private ad public colleges after adequate standardization is a great task challenging the University.   There is great job to bring University upto the standard and affiliation of Private and Public Colleges will prove the strength. I suggest the University should form institutions of various specialities and technology so that thus should be self sufficient in medical and dental science.

 

A University is a symbol of academic excellence and it was a necessity in the field of medical sciences for the promotion of higher medical sciences and technology in the country and it is placed at the campus which will grow as a center of excellence in the field of speciality of medicine. We had Liaquat Medical University Jamshoroo Hyderabad running smoothly. The establishment of this University at Lahore means your future begins in making major stride in the field of medicine, dentistry, medical technology, pharmacy and nursing. I am confident that the quality management of postgraduate institutions will create leadership motivation and it shall change the behaviour towards the patients.  

 

I suggested there should be institute of dental sciences, institute of preventive sciences, cancer and all other research institution may be created. Over and above University of Health Sciences may be named as Madir e Millat Health University or Maryam Jinnah Health University so that we may pay homage to our heroes like Ishaq Khan Institute of Technology, Quaid-e-Aiwan University of Engineering and Science Technology, Nawabshah and Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. 

 
 


 

PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY EDUCATION IN CHILDREN SCHOOLS

 
 

Educating our school children about the ideology of Pakistan is must in our educational system. At present the private English medium schools and other public schools fail to create an awareness of the struggle for the creation of Pakistan among their pupils. Therefore, there is a need that students in primary classes both in the public and the private sector  be educated about the Pakistan Movement. Our children need to be told about the Two Nation Theory and thus need to be familiarized with our National heroes, such as Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and Allama Iqbal, the poet of the East.

If we make a historical survey of the English medium schools at Lahore, we see that missionary education started in 19th century in the under developed areas of the world like Africa and India and this system quickly spread over the British Colonies as English medium schools. This system was started by Christrarian Churches in India.   For example, in Oct. 1852 the American Mission in Lahore led by the Rev. C. W. Forman got the permission to set up a school inside Rang Mahal, in the reign of Shah Jehan. After the defeat of Sikh Army, another school was set up at Bhati Gate in one of the abandoned barracks, now the District Courts building. This was the first English medium school in Lahore started by Dr. Rev. C. W. Forman and it shifted to many places, lastly to Temple Road, Lahore.   At present many such schools exist in Lahore, Lahore Grammar School, The Lahore Lyceum, The City School, Beaconhouse School System, LACAS, Essena Foundation, Salamat School System, National Grammar School, Customs Public School, Aitchison College. (DAWN 26th July 2003 – Majeed Sheikh).

On a similar basis, Sindh Madrisa tul Islam Karachi, was founded in 1885 by the late Khan Bahadar Hassanali Bhai Effendi who was the president Sindh Mohammedan Association and a follower of Barrister Amir Ali of Calcutta, who was founder of Mohammedan Association Bengal. Quaid-e-Azam was educated in this school in the early days though the school many years under European Principal besides, the ordinary high schools, there were Sindhi and Urdu in Primary and Quran classes. The number of the rolls in the English branch in March 1916 was 350, almost all Muslims. Similarly Karachi Grammar School was started in 1854 under the auspices of Sir Bartle Frere in Cantonment and for a long time was called Victoria School. And later on many school started here and there but education in the beginning started in Indo-Pak on the religious basis.

Prior to the East India Company and British occupation, education was carried on one to one basis, Hindus other than the Brehman received their education from private teachers or in the schools maintained by private persons in the towns as “Pathshalas”.   A Brehman boy of the age of eight became the “Chela” of the Guru or religious teacher and spent some fourteen years under his tuition.   Similarly Musalmans’ in the same way were taught by learned Moulvis in schools attached with Mosques, which were known as Maktabs. The Asian system of education involved an individual relation ship of the tutor with his pupils, not that of a master with his class. The medium of instruction was Sanskrit for Hindus and Arabic or Persian for Muslims. After East India Company commercial institutions occupied Bengal 1753, and education had to be reorganized and Lord Hastings founded a Madrasa of Islamic studies at Calcutta in 1781, Jonathan Duncan founded the Sanskrit College at Benaras in 1792 and the East India Company for many years continued to give stipends to learned Pandats and Moulvis.  

Ref:     (Sir Georg Anderson Chapt. VIII, Page 246 Social Service in India –1937).

 

From about 1811, Lord Minto Governor General, and an evangelical group led by Wilberforce in England began to press for English education in India. Under this pressure the Company very unwillingly agreed to the insertion of a clause in the Charter Act of 1813 for English language. Lord Macaulay in 1834 brought his education reforms of February 1835 and declared himself an Anglicist. Lord William Bentinck, then Governor General, took the same view, and in a resolution of March 1835 decided that the object of the British Government should be the promotion of English literature and science. From that time higher education in India became, and has since always remained education in western knowledge of all kinds. Whilst the old oriental learning has for the most part sunk to the position of an optional subject in university Curricula. So the English medium school has its roots in the missionary schools of the 19th Century.

Education is the formation, by certain means of instruction, of certain mental habits and a certain outlook on life and the world. There are four characteristics that jointly form the basis of an ideal character, i.e. vitality , courage, sensitiveness and intelligence. And these four ought to be complemented with a clear notion of ideology as well.

 

It is a confirmed fact that future life and well being of a child is determined during the first five years for his or her life, it is at that critical time that the childs maximum brain development occurs. Scientific research and experience of millions of world teachers shows that intelligence, personality and social behavior, develop most rapidly in humans during these earliest years. For this reason, early childhood care and development are organizational priorities for UNICEF, and ensuring a good start in life for every child is seen as key to making a world fit for children.

 

The Government of Pakistan 2001-2005 action plan is a very encouraging step for improvement of quality of education and enabling all citizens to reach their maximum potential. The early child education at primary level has incorporated no ideology programme for the children. Pakistan is an ideological state, founded on two nation theory. Children needs to know the ideology regarding the journey of creation of Pakistan, and all the provincial governments through educational reforms be given tasks to communicate the ideology and objective of creation of Pakistan both in the public and private sector schools.

The private sector schools are for the privileged class of society, and the public school are run by the government. They are poorly managed; Almost all public schools lack teachers, buildings, facilities, playgrounds, light, and interest of the local bodies and the government, whereas the private schools, a segment of the society imparting education to those who can spend more on the education of their children are very expensive. For example, charges in the city of Lahore are as follows:   At primary level fee ranges from Rs. 1500 to Rs. 3600. And for high level monthly fee is Rs. 2900 to Rs. 4330, admission fee is also heavy ranging from Rs. 9000 to Rs. 15000 and security fee from Rs. 5000 to 6000. These schools mentioned above are very costly and system of the education is English. Certainly, it is developing the English and Western culture and children have got no idea of Islamic Studies or Pakistan Studies and minimum courses are taught in these subjects. This organized and systematic teaching system is, therefore, promoting western culture.   

Personal experience: My grandson is a student of 6th class in a very famous school founded by the British. When I go to pick him I hardly ever come across a child who greets his mother with an Assalam-o-Alaikum.   I asked mothers how does the child say Aslam Alaikum? They replied they had to train him in this respect.   So no child is trained and educated regarding the eastern system of respect. If I get telephone call from friend of my grand son, there is no Aslam –o- alaikum, no respect, no introduction, just whether Bakhtawar Soofi is there or not.  

My daughter (M. Sc. Home Economics) is a teacher in a famous Schools System and her children are also studying in same school.   There was an annual function of school to which I was invited. There were 7 stage shows performed by the school children. They were regarding Christianity and none of the show was on Pakistan culture. So for our English medium schools, there is much need that Pakistan ideology be taught. There is need that some people belonging to the Pakistan Movement visit such schools so that children should hear from them the story of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam used to visit schools and he visited Ali Garh School and students remember it.   Quaid-e-Azam had photographs with “Bacha” Muslim League Aligarh. So, we should arrange visits to schools and should have interaction with children and teachers. My daughter in law is teaching in a leading college at Lahore. She teaches English, she says, even students of her 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th year and M. A. classes lack proper discipline and respect. There is degeneration of manners at all levels.    

 

If we examined the curriculum and books of the English Medium Schools for children, book are mostly written by foreign authors, for example;

 

Book one titled “Oxford History for Pakistan” written by foreigner Peter Moss, published by Oxford University Press, and if you see there is nothing about history of Pakistan in the contents, everything else has been put up and in case of Pakistan and sub-continent again there is no mentioned about creator of Pakistan and there is no mentioned of Pakistan Movement, rest of the world in page-57, there is one green page Star at one corner and Moon at the other corner, no Map, only word is Pakistan and the Sub-continent. This flag does not show share of minority and in history no mention of Pakistan except they have given some photographs. With such books, what the students will learn about Pakistan, nothing?  

 

The second book titled “Primary Social Studies” student book for 4th class, written by Susan Thomas, in the contents   its places, living in Pakistan, Cities, Air Routes in Pakistan, nothing about Pakistan ideology and pictures are distorting the image of Muslims. There is no reference of Pakistan Movement only few things are given in case of NWFP, tea man selling tea and in case of Punjab Cow pats on the walls are shown and water taps. There is nothing about dignity of being Pakistanis. The Book is written by a foreigner, who would be least likely to introduce Pakistan in a favourable or dignified light.

 

Another book is Geography by Curriculum Planning & Development Division, Ministry of Education, Singapore. This book is also written by foreigners. Book mentioned Geography of the World but there is no chapter or area for the students to have Geography look of Pakistan. The students are not getting any excitement to their Pakistan, no knowledge of Pakistani scholars and Pakistani behaviour of culture. 

 

Most of the English Medium schools have got their own uniforms in western style and western books and they lack attention to the personal life of a student to make him/ her creative and courageous. There is no extra stress on the social activities for service to other people, whereas it is during student life that incentive to serve the others is created. In such schools target is to finish the curriculum and curriculum is made by a foreigner. The students are not taught anything to conceive himself because there is no such demonstration by the teachers. There is no incentive, nor demonstration to rise in life. There is no role model for students, that they are going to be leaders of tomorrow.  

 
What is needed?
 

The government in the millenium has got lot of stress on education, government of the Punjab has also started paying attention to this neglected sector so I recommend:

 

a.            Books of all the English Medium Schools should be written by Pakistani scholars with Pakistani spirit and sense of mission. The education system should be creative, distinct and courageous. There is a need for think tanks for guiding educational institutions for creativity and extra curricular activities in addition to education.

b.            The school boys are under heavy pressure of books and so are the parents. The numbers of books should be reduced and students should be given time for creativity, planning and learning to use the libraries.  

c.            Members of Pakistan Movement and Member of Nazria e Pakistan Foundation should visit schools, address the students, talk to students like Bacha Muslim League in 1942 as Quaid-e-Azam had a photograph with them at Aligarh.

d.            The students should be taken to the Museum and visit Nazria e Pakistan Foundation Picture Gallery, this will help the students to know about Pakistan Movement. 

e.            Love should be created for Pakistan and the creator of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

f.             Stage drama, pictures, T. V. Programmes should be shown and there should be some check on anti - Pakistani Films.

g.            We should have more playgrounds, students should be involved. We have made remarkable achievements in the areas of both sports and science and technology. Now we need to keep this up by improving our education system.

Ref:

§    Sir Georg Anderson Chapt. VIII, Page 246 Social Service in India –1937.

§    DAWN 26th July 2003 – Majeed Sheikh.

 


 
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
 
By Prof. Dr. M. A. Soofi
 

Pakistan emerged as an independent Muslim state on the surface of globe after struggle of Muslims of Sub-continent under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and All India Muslim League. Thus as a result of partition of India into Pakistan and India on 14th of August, 1947 we got East Pakistan in the north east of India and West Pakistan in the north west of India having four provinces and federally administered areas. 

 

Areas included in Pakistan were already backward in education as compared to the areas comprising of Bharat. In the north east of India prior to partition, Dhaka University was established in 1913. All other Muslims population areas were lacking in universities, schools, teachers. Similarly, in the north west of India comprising of four provinces, there was a dearth of educational institutions. Similarly, i.e. in 1860 University of Lahore was created which was renamed as University of the Punjab in 1883.   This was the only educational institution providing the educational facilities to the men and women of these large areas and there was no other University in this area. The degree colleges were few, female education was minimum and thus after creation of Pakistan on the advice of Quaid-e-Muhammad Ali Jinnah Governor General Pakistan, an Educational conference was organized at Karachi in Nov. 1947 in order to get away from our inherited foreign educational system designed to fulfil the colonial interests of its imperialists rulers.   The culture of education was based on the western style which was not appropriate for our society. 

 

Pakistan was based on ideological commitments of two nation theory, that Islam is source of strength in almost all fields of life, and to enable the citizen to pass their lives in accordance with injunctions of Al Quran and tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).   The leaders in the beginning wanted to change the education system after removing the draw backs so that the education system should be oriented according to our cultural, ideological, economical and political needs of the new nation. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah founder of the country and the first Governor General could not attend this conference physically due to his ill health but he had issued a message for the conference which in unequivocal terms highlighted priorities in the field of education, he expressed earnestness of the government in attending to them. Quaid’s message is as follows:

“In his message to All Pakistan Education Conference, at Karachi on 27th Nov. 1947 he said: You know that the importance of education and the right type of education can not be over emphasized. Under foreign rule for over a century, in the very nature of things, I regret sufficient attention has not been paid to the education of our people, and if we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this question and bring out an educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have taken place all over the world. It is clear from the speeches and thoughts of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah mentioned above, that he was not satisfied with the education system of British India. He wanted to create a new structure of education in Pakistan responsive to the religious, socio-culture and economic needs of Pakistan. Secondly, he did not restrict education to any particular area of study but he encouraged Muslims to advance in all fields of study besides Arts and Law like Commerce, Science and Technology, etc, keeping in view the developments that were taking place all over the world. If education system in Pakistan is designed on the lines set by Quaid-i-Azam Pakistani nation and the State of Pakistan will soon advance in every field of life, Insha Allah. Prior to creation of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, President All India Muslim League was very much concerned about the education of the Muslims of sub-continent and he expressed his heart and mind to the Principal Islamia College, Calcutta on 23rd Feb. 1946 “ Education will be one of the first problems that the Pakistan Government will be called upon to deal with. When it is established to be followed by economic and social reform”. It means Quaid desired to have an education and the education system for the Muslims which would be in accordance with their own religion and culture. Similar expression he gave to the students of Islamia College Peshawar during the 2nd visit in Nov. 1945 Mr. M. A. Jinnah said: “Islamic dimension of the planning process in various educational economic and planning subject committee are being set up by All India Muslim League to find out material for reconstruction of the Muslim education, Muslim Industry, and Muslim commerce on proper, sound and essential Islamic basics. (Ref: Quaid-e-Azam Vision of Education, by Shehla Kazmi, DAWN, Thursday Dec 25, 2003).

 

The conference was held in full length and there was long discussion. After discussion by the scholars representing the various provinces, three recommendations were formulated for the education system of Pakistan:

 
1.    Free and compulsory education

2.    Education should be inspired by Islamic principles particularly by the ideals of universal brotherhood, tolerance and justice.

3.    Adequate recognition should be given to the technical education.

 

The education was made free and compulsory and islamic principles were the main ideas because Islam promotes the idea of universal brotherhood, tolerance and justice for all. In those days, education system consisted of 3 stages: primary education comprising of 5 years schooling for the age group of 5 to 9 years to provide the basic facility of education to all the children of Pakistan; secondary education, middle schools 10-12 years matriculation 13 to 14 years; and the higher education was the 3rd stage in the colleges and there was also technical education etc.   (Ref. Pakistan Education published by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Pakistan).

 

To follow up the recommendations of education conference of 1947 another conference was held in 1951 during the period of Khawja Nazim ud Din, in order to discuss the decision of previous conference and add new ideas.   Another education reform commission was set up in 1959 during the period of Ayub Khan from 1958-68) to conduct an over all analysis of the situation and formulation of the recommendation. As a result, a high powered commission under the chairmanship of Mr. S. M. Sharif prepared a report in detail. According to his advice, the advisory board of education, the council on technical education and inter university board were set up to help and achieve the objectives.   The work on the education was going on very slowly due to socio political situation of the country and as a policy matter the budget allotment to education and health was minimum.   Much of the budget was spent on the defense system. Another report came up in 1977 which suggested certain changes and thus based on the recommendations of this report, education policy was prepared by Government of Pakistan from 1972 to 1980. When the civil government ended, the successive government held another conference from 3-5 Oct. 1977 at Islamabad in order to lay down a system of education based on aspirations of the people suited for their needs. Thus the education policy was announced in Oct. 1978 the salient features of the policy were as under: -

 

1.            To foster in the hearts and minds of the people of Pakistan, in general, and the students in particular, a deep and abiding loyalty to Islam and living consciousness of Muslim nationhood, thereby strengthening the unity of the outlook of the people living In various provinces and the minorities on the basis of justice and fairplay;

2.            To create an awareness in every student that he, as a member of Pakistani nation, is also a part of the universal Muslim Ummah and it is expected of him to make a contribution towards the welfare of fellow Muslims inhabiting the globe;

3.            To develop and inculcate in accordance with Quran and Sunnah, the character, conduct and motivation expected of a true Muslim through effective elimination of gaps and contradictions   between the profession and practice of Islam. 

4.            To develop fully according to his capacity, each individual’s potentialities through training and retraining and to liberate the creative and innovative energies of the people with a view to build their capabilities to effectively manage social, natural and productive forces, consistent with the value system of Islam.

5.            To provide a minimum acceptable level of functional literacy and fundamental education to all citizens of the country particularly the young, irrespective of their faith, caste and creed in order to enable them to participate productively in the total national effort;

6.            To create interest and love for learning and discipline among the youth and to ensure that every student is imbibed with the realization that education is a continuous and a lifelong process; and

7.            To promote and propagate scientific and technological training and research in the country and to use this knowledge for socio economic growth and development thereby ensuring a self reliant and secure future for the nation.

 

Then there was a fifth plan from 1978 to 1981 and many schools and universities appeared during these days like :

1.            University of the Punjab, Lahore.

2.            University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore.

3.            Bahauddin Zakaria University, Multan.

4.            Islamia University, Bahawalpur.

5.            University of Sind, Jamshoro.

6.            Mehran University of Engineering & Technology.

7.            Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sind.

8.            Agriculture University, Faisalabad.

9.            University of Karachi, Karachi.

10.         N.E.D. Engineering University, Karachi.

11.         University of Baluchistan, Quetta.

12.         University of Peshawar, Peshawar.

13.         NWFP University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar.

14.         NWFP University of Agriculture, Peshawar.

15.         Gomal University, D. I. Khan.

16.         Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

17.         Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

18.         Islamic University, Islamabad.

19.         University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad.

20.         Women University, at Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar.

21.         Aga Khan University of Health Sciences.

 

With all such efforts Mehboob ul Haq Report 1997 defines that from 1970 to 1993 the adult literacy increased from 21 % to 36 % and from 1980 to 1993 during this period the number of primary, secondary and inter admissions became doubled. Even then 2/3 of adult population of Pakistan was without education. He said 17 million children upto 1995 could not be admitted.   He mentioned that 36 million people of Pakistan are passing life under poverty line and much of the land is in possession of Zamindars.   He also mentioned that the children going to the primary school, half and more than half leave the school and join work as laborers. He mentioned that due to poverty and lack of proper diet and income 740000 children die each year due to adulterated diet. He further mentioned that 60 million people had no access to health facilities and 67 million people drank unclean water and 89 million hadn’t got the facilities of sanitation.   So upto last century our educational system could not be steered in the right direction because Pakistan spent less than 5% of GDP on the education system. This expenditure on the education is the poorest in the world spent on the social welfare of the citizens. He said 0.2 % of the total income is being spent on education while America spent 11 % Sweden spent 13 % of the total income on education. So when education is not a priority, its standard cannot be improved and it cannot contribute to the economy of the country. Drop outs from schools end up as beggars, mostly they get bad society and a huge number of the children are working in workshops. (Ref. Development in South Asia-1997 by Mehboob ul Haq, Oxford University Press).

 

If we consider the total population of Pakistan, 14 to 18 crores, we find that more than 7 crores of this population is 18 years or more and 2.50 crore is less than 5 years. If we calculate, we find that more than 2.25 crores children cannot get into the schools. If we visualize the education system, it comprises of three things:

1.    Students.
2.    Teachers

3.    Schools having the laboratories and libraries.

 

If we could see the students admission ratio which has been explained above, now in the province of Punjab, Government of Punjab has declared formula of 1947 conference i.e. free primary education in addition to 200 /PM scholarship for girls students upto 8th class. Second, comes the teachers, recently a report has been published that 3585 posts of the teachers are vacant in the elementary and secondary school teachers in the Province of Punjab.   The role of teachers is very important when the teachers are not provided proper status they cannot perform well.   Much of the standard of education in the country depends upon the quality and commitment of the teaching staff and teachers are suffering in Pakistan and the standard of teaching has declined over the years because quality because teachers have not been given incentive and the government has failed to allocate sufficient funds for the betterment of students and teachers. Thus most of the schools at primary level, higher level are inadequately staffed. We are lacking trained science teachers in the whole of the province. 

 

I have got personal experience during my visit to many schools of the city of Lahore in the areas of Sant Nagar, Krishan Nagar. More over the service condition of the teachers is worse, they are low paid so this aspect is very grievous and parents have lost the trust in the teaching system and institution run by the government. Therefore, the attendance or registration of the children in the rural areas and some of the urban areas is less as compared to admission in private schools. Third problem is the lack of Schools. In many areas of the Punjab and elsewhere, primary schools are missing. Many schools lack roofs, boundary walls, drinking water facility, library, science laboratories, therefore, it has got less attraction for the parents to send the children to the schools. If there is a school, teachers are not available. 

 

The educational reforms. The recent changes in the syllabus have created another controversial problem in the country. We are already lacking in education, and day by day more problems are being created for the children and for the parents.   I, therefore suggest to over come the difficulties in education, the budget should be increased, attention should be increased, interest should be increased we have to overcome the literacy and poverty in this region.   We have to consider education as a future resource of country, there is a need for proper balance, appropriate education in accordance with discipline of Islam and with the slogan of Quaid-e-Azam, justice; fairplay and impartiality in education. We should do the justice to the population of Pakistan, we should provide them fair funds, teachers, schools facilities irrespective of rich or poor / caste and creed. At present the education is limited to the urban population of those who have got resources to bear the cost of the education at private level. 

 

Education is the only sector which has been neglected to the maximum in Pakistan by almost all the governments during the past 56 years. With all our efforts of propagation, we could not obtain literacy rate in Pakistan on which the Muslim State was created and thus the apathy created by the bureaucrats or the heads of the government had neglected this important social sector.   We lacked the initiative in education even during Ayub Khan regime from (1958 to 1969), (Mr. Qudrat ullaha Shahab – in Shahab Nama 1996) in his chapter President Ayub and students has mentioned many interesting stories that President Ayub was scared of the College and University Education and he was not taking keen interest for promotion of the education at higher level as he feared that such students will create problems against the Government by holding strikes or processions. Qudratullah mentioned that Governor West Pakistan Nawab Kalabagh closed down the colleges for some time. Mr. Shahab talked to the Governor for opening of the Colleges because it is wastage of the time of the students.   President Ayub was also very much frightened of the religious education and though he was in favour of opening primary schools but he never agreed to open the primary school in the Mosques. President Ayub was   scared of the students union. In East Pakistan, there was a book which was confusing the ideology of Pakistan it was approved by text book board of East Pakistan, this book was against unity, national interest, solidarity, the book was in the intermediate course “ History of Pakistan in English” actually this book was written by a Hindu of Calcutta with forged name of Muslim of Dhaka which distorted the historical background and when the case was put before the Governor Abdul Munam Khan, he avoided to delete the book as this book was introduced by the agents of the Hindu through his relative and they were paid a huge amount of money.

 

Similarly the process of the improvement of the text books in English and Urdu medium needs to be judged out for justification, accountability, efficiency, whether the book is potent, actual, based upon the facts, or it should be acceptable to the teachers that the book will not misguide the students.   We had open no the schools, we upgrade colleges, we initiate universities but we do not go for monitoring of the expenditure to the relevant utility and benefit to the public. After all money is being spent by the government exchequer there should be some popular opinion about the school, the student should be attracted, teachers should be engaged in reality, parents should be involved. Trust is created only when we can see that education is flourishing. Schooling becomes only effective, if the students requirements are met by the State otherwise education at home, education at Mohalla is being sold on the different pattern, different style which is injurious to the fulfillment of education. If we examine carefully Fobia of ‘O’ or ‘A’ level, Pakistan is loosing brilliant students because the best students are chosen by Cambridge, international examination or other foreign university, and thus the cream of students is not available at the campus of our university. Similar situation is that of the medical doctors. The brilliant doctors in early fiftees left the country for improving the quality of their degrees and now they are settled abroad to increase income and they are recognized as best medical person internationally. So if we want to save the future of Pakistan, we have to look into our school education, college education and for career making of the young men and women in this country and to create opportunity for them so that intelligent people should work for the future of the country. There is need of initiative on the part of the government, areas of education, health and other reforms.

 

The Government of the Punjab has taken initiative with the great declaration of education for everybody, there is need that text books which are being introduced possess or contain the ideology of Pakistan and the teachers receive their refresher training course of the new methods and the parents are encouraged to send their children to these schools. Then only the dream of the Quaid-e-Azam and the spirit of his struggle for independence will find its fulfillment.